TYPES OF ERROR
Errors of measurement are of
three kinds: (i) mistakes, (ii) systematic errors, and (iii) accidental errors.
Mistakes are errors that arise from inattention, inexperience, carelessness and
poor judgment or confusion in the mind of the observer. If mistake is
undetected, it produces a serious effect on the final result. Hence every value
to be recorded in the field must be checked by some independent field
Systematic Error. A systematic error is an error
that under the same conditions will always be of the same size and sign. A
systematic error always follows some definite mathematical or physical law, and
a correction can be determined and applied. Such errors are of
constant character and
are regarded as
positive or negative according as
they make the result too great or too small. Their effect is therefore,
cumulative. If undetected, systematic errors are very serious. Therefore:
(1) All the surveying equipments
must be designed and used so that whenever possible systematic errors
will be automatically eliminated and
(2) all systematic
errors that cannot be surely
eliminated by this means must be evaluated and their relationship to the
conditions that cause them must be determined. For example, in ordinary
levelling, the levelling instrument must first be adjusted so that the line of
sight is as nearly horizontal as possible when bubble is centered. Also the
horizontal lengths for back sight and foresight from each instrument position
should be kept as nearly equal as possible. In precise levelling, every day,
the actual error of the instrument must be determined by careful peg test, the
length of each sight is measured by stadia and a correction to the result is
(iii) Accidental Error.
Accidental errors are those which remain after mistakes and systematic errors
have been eliminated and are caused by a combination of reasons beyond the
ability of the observer to control. They tend sometimes in one direction and
some times in the other, i.e., they are equally likely to make the apparent
result too large or too small.
An accidental error of a single
determination is the difference between (1) the true value of the quantity and
(2) a determination that is free from mistakes and systematic errors.
Accidental error represents limit of precision in the determination of a value.
They obey the laws of chance and therefore, must be handled according to the
mathematical laws of probability.
The theory of errors that is discussed in this chapter deals only with the accidental errors after all the known errors are eliminated and accounted for.