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1. The main points for the treatment of coma are as under:
2. According to the seriousness of the condition, the patient should be immediately given intensive treatment in an LC.U.
3. Immediate treatment is initiated to normalise important functions like respiration, blood circulation, blood pressure.
4. If the cause is unknown, immediate glucose, vitamin B1 and injection Nalorphine are administered as the first line of treatment:
5. The cause/causes of Coma are determined quickly by blood tests and if need be E.E.G, CT scan, lumbar puncture etc. are conducted and accordingly its treatment is started as soon as possible. For instance if there is an infection in the brain, an antibiotic, or TB medicine can be administered, or if there is thrombosis, the drugs to prevent the blood from clotting are to be administered.
6. If there is dehydration, intravenous administration of fluids is done; if there is an acid base imbalance, an intensive treatment is given. Nutritional imbalance is corrected by giving a diet with proper calories.
7. If the coma is due to the defect of any organ, its treatment is given or if the problem is due to diabetes or thyroid disorder, its immediate treatment is commenced.
8. Convulsions or deficiency of sodium etc. are also given immediate treatment with proper drugs.
9. There is a considerable difference between the two conditions leading to coma, i.e. structural and metabolic. Brain tumor, paralysis and brain hemorrhage caused by accident, are included in the structural causes, where the brain is attacked directly. Whereas in the metabolic coma, abnormality is first observed in other parts of the body rather than the brain. So the disease first starts in the body, which later affects the brain. There are about 2 to 8 % cases where the cause of the coma remains unknown.
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