• Define the concept of tourism
• Appreciate the basic and geographical components of tourism
• Understand the types of tourism
• Identify the places of tourist attraction in India
• Explain the places of tourist attraction in Tamil Nadu
The word tourist was derived from an old English word “tourian” which refers to a person who travels out of his usual environment for not more than one year and less than 24 hours. The purpose of travel may be religious, recreation, business, historical and cultural.
The Basic components of Tourism
Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and even for the entire countries of the world. Tourism is an essential part of the life of the society because of its direct impact on social, cultural, educational and economic sector of the nation and on their international relations too.
The three main components of tourism are
These three components are together known as A3 concept.
Attractions mainly comprise of two types such as:
• Natural attraction
• Cultural attraction
Natural attraction includes landscape, seascape, beaches, climatic condition and forests.
Cultural attraction are historic monuments and other intellectual creations. Apart from this, cultural attractions also includes fairs and festivals.
Accessibility means reachability to a particular place of attraction through various means of transportation such as road, rail, water and air. Transport decides the cost of travel and the time consumed in reaching or accessing a specific attraction.
Amenities are the facilities that cater to the needs of a tourist.
1. Accommodations in terms of hotels, restaurants, cafes and other staying units.
2. Travel organizers, Tour operators and Travel Agents
3. Foreign exchange centres, passport and visa agencies
4. Sectors related to Travel Insurance, Safety and Security
Types of Tourism
From the ancient times, travel is a fascination for mankind. Tourism can be divided on the basis of nature, utility, time and distance as indicated below.
1. Religious tourism
2. Cultural tourism
3. Historical tourism
5. Adventure tourism
6. Recreational tourism
Religious tourism is one of the oldest type of tourism, wherein people travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage to a religious location such as temples, churches, mosques and other religious places. Religious tour to Kasi (Varanasi) by Hindus, to Jerusalem by Christians and to Mecca by Muslims are few of the examples for religious tourism.
It focuses on visiting historically important places like museums, monuments, archaeological areas, forts, temples and so on. Angkorwat of Cambodia, Tajmahal of India and Pyramids of Egypt are some of the examples to quote for Historical Tourism.
Eco tourism typically involves travel to destinations where plants and animals thrive in a naturally preserved environment. Amazon rain forest, African forest safari, trekking in the slopes of Himalayas are the famous incredible Eco friendly attractions.
Gastronomy refers to an aspectof cultural tourism.
Adventure tourism is a type of tourism involving travel to remote or exotic places in order to take part in physically challenging outdoor activities. For e.g. sky dive in Australia, Bungee jumping in New Zealand, mountaineering in the peaks of Himalayas, rafting in the Brahmaputra River at Arunachala Pradesh.
This type of tourism aims at enjoyment, amusement or pleasure are mainly for 'fun activity'. Waterfalls, hill stations, beaches, and amusement parks are the attractive spots for recreational tourism. Apart from this, there are certain modern types of tourism, which got developed in recent years.
1. Annual Holiday tourism
2. Industrial Tourism
3. Seasonal Tourism
4. International Tourism
5. Group Tourism
6. Sports Tourism
7. Health Tourism
8. Farm and Rural Tourism
Inbound Tourism: Touring within the native country.
Outbound Tourism: Touring in foreign countries
International tourism is undertaken to visit the places of international importance and to gather knowledge about international culture and customs. For this, there are certain travel forms and formalities to be fulfilled by the tourists, such as passport, Visa, Foreign Currency, Air ticket, Travel insurance, and other immigration details.
VISA – A document issued to a person (or) a stamp marked on the passport of a person who wants to visit other country.
Tourist VISA - Recreation sight seeing
Student VISA – Higher education
Employment VISA – Work in a country
Medical VISA – Medical treatment in a reputed hospital of a country
Basic Elements of Tourism attractions
Certain elements are fundamental to attract tourists as travel destinations. They are
• Pleasant weather
• Scenic beauty
• Historical and cultural monuments
Geographical Components of Tourism
1. Landforms : Mountains, Plateaus, Canyons, Valleys, Caves, Cirques, Sand dunes, Coral reefs, Cliffs, etc.,
2. Water : Rivers, Lakes, Waterfalls, Hot springs and Geysers, Snow and Glacier, Water Currents, Tides and Waves.
3. Vegetation : Forest, Grasslands, Moors, Deserts etc.,
4. Climate: Sunshine, Clouds, Admirable Temperature, Rain and Snow.
5. Animal life:-
a) Wildlife : Birds, Game Reserves, Zoos.
b) Hunting and Fishing
6. Settlement features:-
(a)Towns, Cities, Villages
(b)Historical remains and Monuments
Ways of life, traditions, folklore, arts and crafts.
Game Reserves: An area of land set aside for the protection of wild animals.
Tourism Attractions in India
India is a country known for its gentle hospitality with spicy food and culture. Visitor friendly traditions with varied life style, culture, heritage, colourful fairs and festivals are abiding attractions for the tourists. All types of land form, varied climate, rich resources for eco and adventure tourism are the versatile specialty of India. Technological parks and science museums, pilgrimage centers with wonderful art and architecture are an added advantage for tourists. Yoga, Ayurveda and Natural remedial Health resorts attract tourists from all over the world.
India being a multi-religious country, religious tourism is the most popular type of tourism. Various package tours are organized for the people to attend the religious rituals and to visit places of religious importance. Most famous religious spots of India are as follows:
Rameswaram - Tamil Nadu
Kanchipuram - Tamil Nadu
Varanasi(Kasi) - Uttarpradesh
Saranath - Uttarpradesh
Vaishnavadevi temple - Jammu &Kashmir
St. Francis Xavier Cathedral - Goa
Amritsar - Punjab
Monasteries of Ladakh - Jammu &Kashmir
Scenic attraction is a very important factor in tourism. Scenery consisting of Mountains, Lakes, Waterfall, Glacier, Forests, and Deserts are the major features attracting people to visit them. India is blessed with nature and gifted with immense beauty from rolling hills to deep valley and snow covered mountains to lush green carpet.
Hill Stations in India
The Indian sub continent has seven principal mountains ranges and the largest of all is the Himalayas that lie in the northern part of India. Most of the Himalayan hill stations in India are located in states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have hill stations in the Western Ghats. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha have hill stations in the Eastern Ghats.
The beautiful hill stations in India
Kodaikanal, Ooty - Tamil Nadu
Nainital, Mussoorie - Uttarakhand
Darjeeling - West Bengal
Gulmarg - Jammu & Kashmir
Shillong - Meghalaya
Shimla, Manali - Himachal pradesh
Munnar - Kerala
Gangtok - Sikkim
ITC – Inclusive Tour Charter
IATA – International Air Transport Association
IATO – Indian Association of Tour Operators
TAAI - Travel Agents Association of India
TTTHA - Tamil Nadu Tour Travel and Hospitality Association
TTDC – Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation
Water falls in India
In India there are many spectacular and wonderful waterfalls covered by dense forest, huge walls of rock and lush green trees. Among these waterfalls, some are seasonal, while some are perennial. Few of the amazing waterfalls are in swing during the monsoon season. This season brings lot of tourists to these bubbling waterfall sites. Notable waterfalls of India are given below:
Wild life and Bird Sanctuaries
India possesses a wide range of forests and grasslands. Diversity of these lands makes it one of the hotspot for flora and fauna. The dense and dark forest of Indian States provides suitable habitat for a wide and an unique variety of animals and birds. Royal Bengal Tigers, Indian Lions, Elephants, Rhinoceros, Indian leopard and Reptiles are the major tourist attractions. Bird sanctuaries attract attention for their exclusive variety of birds. Diverse range of climate of India invite birds from remote places to feed, breed and to nurture their young ones in the Indian bird sanctuaries.
Push factors in Tourism are Prestige Pull factors in Tourism are Amenities.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in India
Wildlife sanctuary - State - Animals
1. Mudumalai wildlife sanctuary - Tamil Nadu - Tiger, Elep
hant , Bison, Deer
2. Kaziranga National Park - Assam - Tiger, Deer, Buffalo
3. Ranthambor National Park - Rajasthan - Tiger
4. Kanha National Park - Madhya Pradesh - Swamp Deer
5. Sundarbans National Park - West Bengal Bengal - Tiger
6. Gir National Park - Gujarat - Lions
7. Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary - Karnataka - Bison, Leopard, Gaur
8. Periyar National Park - Kerala - Elephant, Deer
9. Corbett National Park - Uttarakhand - Tiger
Bird Sanctuaries in India
S.No. Bird Sanctuary State
1. Koonthankulam bird sanctuary - Tamil Nadu
2. Kumarakom bird sanctuary - Kerala
3. Bharatpur bird sanctuary - Rajasthan
4. Mayani bird sanctuary - Maharashtra
5. Uppalapadu bird sanctuary - Andhra pradesh
6. Nal Sarovar bird sanctuary - Gujarat
7. Nawabganj bird sanctuary - Uttar Pradesh
India is a country with 7517 km long coastline comprising the most beautiful beaches bounded by Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. Indian beaches are enriched with diverse coastal land forms filled with aquatic flora and fauna . Lush backwater in the lagoons of Kerala and picturesque beaches of Goa such as calangute, Aguda are the notable tourist destinations for water sports activities. The most charming and enchanting beaches of India are listed below.
Beaches - State - Geographical features
1. Dhanushkodi - Tamil Nadu - Turquoise blue sea water
2. Varkala Beach - Kerala - Sea Cliffs for wonderful sunset views
3. Tarkarli Beach - Maharashtia - Coral reefs and marine adventure
4. OM Beach - Karnataka - Two semi circular caves that join together forming the inverted symbol of OM
5. Aguda Beach - Goa - A huge hill dominates the southern side of the beach.
6. Marari Beach - Kerala - Saddle like rock(Hammock) Beach
Tourist Attraction in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu has various tourist attractions like religious centres, spiritual retreat centres, beaches, hill stations, waterfalls, wildlife, art, culture, architecture, crafts, heritage monuments etc. The Government of Tamil Nadu has recognized the importance of tourism long ago and facilitated its development in desired directions. Exploring new avenues like medical tourism and adventure tourism in the past decades have helped Tamil Nadu tourism to achieve more than twenty percent annual growth. Tamil Nadu earns the largest share of income from tourism in India.
Tamil Nadu is a state popularly known as land of Temples and has been the greatest source for spiritual rejunuvation for travellers all over the world. The state is home to around 33,000 ancient temples that mainly belongs to Dravidian style of architecture. Some of the world renowned religious destinations are as follows:
• Thanjavur Big temple
• Madurai Meenakshi temple
• Rameswaram Ramanathaswami temple
• Temples of Kancheepuram
• Velankanni Madha church
• Nagore Dargah
Hill Stations in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu being situated in the Southern end of the Western and Eastern Ghats, is the home for several hill stations. Popular among them are Udagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Coonoor, Valparai, Yelagiri, Sirumalai, Kalrayan Hills and Palani Hills, Shevroy hills and Cardamom Hills. They are also abodes of thick forest and wild life.
Ooty - Queen of Hills
Yercaud - Lake forest (Poor Man's Ooty)
Yelagiri - 14 hairpin bends
Kodaikanal - Princess of Hill Stations
Kotagiri - Green Hills
Velliangiri Hills - Kailash of the South
Kolli Hills - motor able terrain with 70 hairpin bends
Anaimalai Hills - Top slip
Meghamalai - High wavy mountains
Javadi - Nature’s Heaven
Waterfalls in Tamil Nadu
Mountains and rivers of Tamil Nadu combined together created many endearing waterfalls. Waterfalls in Tamil Nadu with its inspiring natural wonders attracts many tourists. A trek amidst thick green trees, steep hills and a bath in the gushing water is most rejuvenating. Here is the list of famous water falls of Tamil Nadu.
Waterfalls : Geographical location
Hogenakal falls : It is a beautiful waterfall located in Dharmapuri district.
Kumbakkarai falls : River Pambar cascades to form this fall at the foot hills of Kodaikanal in Theni district.
Monkey falls : This waterfall lies on Anaimalai hills range in Coimbatore surrounded by Evergreen forests.
Killiyur falls : Situated in the shervarayon hill ranges of the Eastern Ghats.
Courtallam : Courtallam is located in Tirunelveli district. It is known for medicalspa
Agaya Gangai : It is a waterfall in Puliacholai on Kolli Hills in Eatern Ghats of Namakkal district.
Suruli Falls : This falls is also called as Cloud Land falls (or) Meghamalai falls. It is located in Theni district.
Wildlife and Bird Sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu
Wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu includes Bird sanctuaries and National Parks. Tamil Nadu is also well known for the diverse natural heritage that it possesses. Hence tourists are highly excited about the wildlife tour across the state. The total area of Tamil Nadu is approximately 130,058 sq.km. 17.6% of the land area comprises of thick forests. Visitors will get to watch a smooth blend of wet evergreen forest, dry and wet deciduous forests, grasslands, sholas, mangroves and thorny scrubs. Besides varied natural vegetation, another prized possession of Tamil Nadu is wildlife Sanctuaries including Tiger, Elephant, Deer, Monkey, Bison etc., for protecting the entire flora and fauna. Wildlife Sanctuaries of the state are enlisted below:
Name of Wildlife Sanctuary : District
1. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary : Nilgiris
2. Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary : Tirunelveli
3. Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary : Nagapattinam
4. Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary : Coimbatore
5. Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary : Tirunelveli
Bird Sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu
Name of Birds Sanctuary : District
1. Vettangudi birds Sanctuary: Sivagangai
2. Karaivetti birds Sanctuary: Ariyalur
3. Vellode birds Sanctuary: Erode
4. Vedanthangal birds Sanctuary: Kancheepuram
National Parks in Tamil Nadu
Name of National Parks: District
1. Guindy National Park: Chennai
2. Gulf of Mannar Marine Park: Ramanathapuram
3. Indira Gandhi National Park: Coimbatore
4. Mukurthi National Park: Nilgiris
5. Mudumalai National Park: Nilgiris
Beaches in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu being a Coastal state in India which consists of several beaches. Some of them are world famous tourist spots. Beach is a lovely place to hang around with friends, families and kids. All these are ideal destinations for sun bath relaxation and water sports activities.
Beaches Geographical features
1. Kovalam Beach Kanchipuram: Small fishing village
2. Marina Beach Chennai: Second longest urban beach
3. Kanyakumari Beach: Multi-coloured sand
4. Rameshwaram Beach: Waveless beach
5. Elliot Beach Chennai: Beautiful beach active in day & night
6. Mahabalipuram Beach Kanchipuram: Architectural and Archeological beach
7. Silver Beach Cuddalore: Water sports is the entertainment
8. Muttukadu Beach Kanchipuram: Calm and Shallow
Environmental Impact of Tourism
The quality of the environment is essential for tourism. The tourism industry created several positive and negative impacts on the environment.
• Direct financial Contributions
• Contributions to government revenues
• Improved environmental management and planning
• Increasing environmental awareness
• Protection and reservation of environment
1. Depletion of Natural Resources
• Water resources
• Local resources
• Land degradation
• Air and Noise Pollution
• Solid Waste and Litering
3. Destruction and Alteration of Eco system
1. The word tourist was derived from an old English word “tourian.”
2. The basic components of tourism are Attraction, Accessibility and Ameneities.
3. Tourism can be divided on the basis of nature, utility, time and distance.
4. Geographical component of Tourism are location, climate, settlement and culture.
5. Industrialization and urbanization had created great pressure on modern living.
6. India is a country known for its gentle (or) hospitality to all visitors.
7. The Indian sub-continent has seven principal mountains ranges.
8. Scenery consisting of Mountains, Lakes, Waterfalls, Glaciers, Forests, and Deserts.
9. The dense and dark forest of Indian states provide home to wild life.
10. Tamil Nadu is also well known for the diverse natural heritage that it possesses.
1. Geyser: a natural hot spring வெந்நீர் ஊற்று
2. Accessibility: the quality of being easily to obtain or use அணுகுமுறை
3. Amenities attractiveness of a place வசதிகள்
4. Recreation the feeling of being relaxed பொழுதுபோக்கு
5. Amusement par a large outdoor area with fairground rides, shows and other entertainments பொழுதுபோக்கு பூங்கா
6 .Bird sanctuary an area of land in which birds are protected and encouraged to breed பறவைகள் சரணாலயம்
7. Wildlife sanctuary an area which provides protection and favourableliving conditions to the wildlife விலஙகுகள் சரணாலயம்
8. Land degradation Loss of natural fertility of soil because of loss of nutrients நில வளம் குறைதல்
1. A.K.Bhatia (2009) Tourism development principles & practices, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi.
2. Shakunthala Jagannathan (1994) India plan your own Holiday, Published by Jean Trindade for Vakils, Feffer& Simons Ltd., Mumbai.
3. Madura Welcome (2015) Tourist Guide book of Tamil Nadu, Madura Travel Service Private Limited, Chennai.
4. C.R. Vilasini (2003) Tourism Geography (Tamil version) S. Karthik, Coimbatore.
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