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Tipu Sultan and the Third Mysore War

The Treaty of Mangalore (1784) exhibited the military strength of Mysore, exposed English weaknesses and increased Tipu's strength. Like his father he wanted to eliminate the English from India.

Tipu Sultan and the Third Mysore War (1790-92)

 

The Treaty of Mangalore (1784) exhibited the military strength of Mysore, exposed English weaknesses and increased Tipu's strength. Like his father he wanted to eliminate the English from India. His other designs were to wreak vengeance on the Nizam and on the Marathas as they had betrayed his father during the hour of need.

 

The chief causes for the Third Mysore War were:

 

                   Tipu Sultan strengthened his position by undertaking various internal reforms. This created worries to the British, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas.

 

                   Moreover, Tipu made attempts to seek the help of France and Turkey by sending envoys to those countries.

 

                   He also expanded his territories at the cost of his neighbours, particularly the Raja of Travancore, who was an ally of the British.

 

                   In 1789, the British concluded a tripartite alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas against Tipu.

War broke out in May 1790 between the English and Tipu. It was fought in three phases. The first phase commenced when Medows, the Governor of Madras, initially directed the campaign to invade Mysore but Tipu's rapid movements halted the progress of the English troops and inflicted heavy losses on them. In the meantime, Cornwallis himself assumed command in December 1790. This was the beginning of  the second phase of the war. Marching from Vellore, he captured Bangalore in March 1791, but Tipu's brilliant strategies prolonged the war and Cornwallis was forced to retreat to Mangalore due to lack of provisions. The third phase of the war began when timely aid from the Marathas with plenty of provisions helped him to resume his campaign and marched against Srirangapattinam again. This time Tipu was at a disadvantage. Swiftly the English forces occupied the hill forts near Srirangapattinam and seized it in February 1792. Tipu Sultan concluded the Treaty of Srirangapattinam with the British. The terms of the treaty were as follows:

          Tipu had to give up half his dominions.

 

          He had to pay a war indemnity of three crore rupees and surrender two of his sons as hostages to the English.

 

          Both sides agreed to release the prisoners of war.

The Treaty of Srirangapattinam is a significant event in the history of South India. The British secured a large territory on the Malabar Coast. In addition they obtained the Baramahal district and Dindugal. After this war, although the strength of Mysore had been reduced, it was not extinguished. Tipu had been defeated but not destroyed.


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