Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. His original name was Zahiruddin Muhammad. He was related to Timur from his father's side and to Chengiz Khan through his mother. Babur succeeded his father Umar Shaikh Mirza as the ruler of Farghana. But he was soon defeated by his distant relative and as a result lost his kingdom. He became a wanderer for sometime till he captured Kabul from one of his uncles. BABUR Then, Babur took interest in conquering India and launched four expeditions between 1519 and 1523.
On the eve of Babur's invasion of India, there were five prominent Muslim rulers - the Sultans of Delhi, Gujarat, Malwa, Bengal and the Deccan - and two prominent Hindu rulers - Rana Sangha of Mewar and the Vijayanagar Empire. Once again by the end of 1525, Babur started from Kabul to conquer India. He occupied Lahore easily by defeating its governor, Daulat Khan Lodi. Then he proceeded against Delhi where Ibrahim Lodi was the Sultan. On 21st April 1526 the first Battle of Panipat took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, who was killed in the battle. Babur's success was due his cavalry and artillery. Babur occupied Delhi and sent his son Humayun to seize Agra. Babur proclaimed himself as 'Emperor of Hindustan'.
His subsequent victories over Rana Sangha and the Afghans secured his position as the ruler of India. Rana Sangha of Mewar was a great Rajput warrior. He marched against Babur and in the Battle of Khanua (near Agra) held in 1527 Babur won a decisive victory over him. Babur assumed the title Ghazi.
In 1528, Babur captured Chanderi from another Rajput ruler Medini Rai. In the next year, Babur defeated the Afghans in the Battle of Gogra in Bihar. By these victories, Babur consolidated his power in India. Babur died at Agra in 1530 at the age of forty seven.
Babur was a great statesman and a man of solid achievements. He was also a great scholar in Arabic and Persian languages. Turki was his mother tongue. He wrote his memoirs, Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki language. It provides a vivid account of India. He frankly confesses his own failures without suppressing any facts. He was also a naturalist and described the flora and fauna of India.
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