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Chapter: Civil Surveying - Levelling and Applications

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Surveying: The value of curvature and refraction corrections

In many projects, terrain information transverse to the longitudinal section (through profile leveling) is also required such as for highways, railways, canals etc.


Cross sectioning done using a leveling instrument



Cross Sectioning

 

In many projects, terrain information transverse to the longitudinal section (through profile leveling) is also required such as for highways, railways, canals etc. In those cases, surveying is carried out at right angle to the central line, generally, at regular interval is being carried out and is termed as cross- sectioning. If, for any reason, a cross-section is run in any other direction, the angle with the centre line is required to be noted. The observations are then recorded as being to the left or right of the centre line. The notes of the readings are maintained as shown in for taking a cross-section along the stake point 4. Reduction of levels, Plotting etc. can be done as in case of profile leveling.



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