Summary - Modern World: The Age of Reason
Renaissance of Italy and its spread to western Europe are discussed.
Renaissance in literature, art and science with special reference to prominent renaissance scholars, artists and scientists are described.
Factors responsible for geographical discoveries of fifteenth and sixteenth century are explored.
Leading role played by Portugal and Spain are highlighted.
Attempts of other European countries in sea exploration are also detailed.
Commercial Revolution and its fallout are elaborated.
The causes of Reformation Movement are analysed.
Contribution of Martin Luther, Zwingli and Calvin are assessed, with a focus on the unique nature of English Reformation.
The Counter-Reformation Movement of the Catholic Church and its impact are elaborated.
Circumstances leading to the rise of new monarchies in western Europe are traced.
Emergence of Spain, England and France as nation-states is explained.