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Chapter: Biology: Animal Tissue, Organ and Organ System

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Structural Characteristics, Functions and Location of Connective Tissue

The. amount of matrix is more in connectivetissue but the number of cells is comparatively less.

Structural Characteristics, Functions and Location of Connective Tissue .

 

Structural Characteristics: The. amount of matrix is more in connectivetissue but the number of cells is comparatively less. Matrix may be jelly like, soft or hard and fragile. One or more than one type of fibre and materials like calcium carbonate may remain present in matrix (Fig-5.6):

 

Functions: Connective tissue connects muscle with muscle and bone with bone. Connective tissue may transform into skeletal tissue, fibrous tissue and. fluid connective tissue.

 

On the basis of structure and function connective tissue is mainly of three types. As:

 

A. Films Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue lies below thebody-integument and sparsely in muscles. In their matrix numerous fibres are present.

 

B. Skeletal Tissue: Internal structural building tissue of the body iscalled the skeletal tissue.

 

Functions:

 

1.  This tissue forms the internal structure of the body, e.g. skeletal system.

 

2.  It gives the body definite shape and firmness.

 

3.  It helps in organ movement and locomotion.

 

4.        I4. It protects the soft and sensitive organs of the body (as brain. spinal cord, lungs, heart etc.).

 

5.  It produces various types of blood corpuscles.

 

6.  It forms the surface for the attachment of voluntary muscles.

 

Depending on the formation, skeletat tissue is of two types.

 

a. Cartilage: Cartilage is a kind of flexible skeletal tissue. Their matrixes aresolid but they are soft and their cells have large spaces. Cartilage is suited at the two ends of the humerus, femur, and pinna of the ear and nose of the mammals.

 

b. Bone: Bone is hard, fragile and unflexible skeletal connective tissue.

 

Bones become rigid due to deposition of lime in their matrix. Some bones are solid. For an example, long bones of hind limb of vertebrates. Parts of long bones near-the bone cavities are sponge like.

 

c. Fluid Connective Tissue:

 

Structural Characteristics: Matrix of this tissue is liquid. In he matrix thereare various types of organic materials in the form of colloid.

 

Function: The main function of vascular tissue is to maintain circulation in theinterior of the body and resistance from disease. This tissue is of two types: Blood and Lymph.

 

1. Blood: Blood is a type of alkaline, stightly saline, red coloured, liquidconnective tissue. Flowing through the artery, veill and capillaries, blood takes part in internal circulation. Blood, blood vessels and heart together form circulatory system.



Structural Characteristics: Blood is formed of two components:

 

i. Plasma: It is the liquid part of blood. It is straw coloured. It contains(91-92) % water and (8-9) % organic and inorganic materials. The organic substances include various types of blood protein and wastematerials. The inorganic part contains different minerals like sodium, potassium, iron. calcium, magnesium etc.

 

Blood Cell or Blood Corpuscles: Blood corpuscles form the majorcomponents of blood. Blood cells are of three types. These are:

Red Blood Corpuscle or Erythrocyte: These blood corpuscles containhaemoglobin. Due to haemoglobin colour of blood is red. the red blood corpuscles of the amphibians are biconvex, nucleated and oval. On the contrary, the red corpuscles of the blood of mammals are biconvex, non nucleated and round. Haemoglobin is combined with oxygen forms a unstable compound oxyhaemoglobin. It breaks down and releases oxygen in places where it is needed. '

 

Functions: To, carry oxygen and some carbon dioxide.

 

a. White Blood Corpuscle or Leucocyte: These generally lack definite shapeand are nucleated. Cytoplasm of white corpuscles are either granular or non granular.

 

Functions: To destroy germs and take part in self defense.

 

Thrombocyte or Platelets: These are present in the blood of vertebrateanimals. These are usually nucleated and spindle shaped. Nucleus is absent in the Thrombocytes of mammals. The thrombocyte of mammal is also called platelet.

 

Function:. Thrombocytes take part in blood coagulation or blood clotting.

 

2. Lymph:- The fluid materials stored in the spaces between different tissuesare collected by some small vessels. These small vessels are united together to form larger vessels. The system formed by these vessels known as lymphatic system. These vessels are lymph vessels and the' fluids are lymph. The large lymph vessels enter the vain in the shoulder region of man. There are some cells in the lymph known as lymphocyte. Lymph is a kind of slightly alkaline, transparent -and yellow coloured fluid.

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