Basis of Aquaculture
Scope and definition
The word ‘aquaculture’, though used rather widely for the last two decades to denote all forms of culture of aquatic animals and plants in fresh, brackish and marine environments, is still used by many in a more restrictive sense. For some, it means aquatic culture other than fish farming or fish husbandry, whereas others understand it as aquatic farming other than mariculture. It is also sometimes used as a synonym for mariculture. However, the term aquaculture is sufficiently expressive and all-inclusive. It only needs a clarification that it does not include the culture of essentially terrestrial plants (as, for example, in hydroponics) or of basically terrestrial animals. However, when it needs to be used to denote (i) the type of culture techniques or systems (e.g. pond culture, raceway culture, cage culture, pen culture, raft culture), (ii) the type of organism cultured (e.g. fish culture or fish husbandry, oyster, mussel, shrimp or seaweed culture), (iii) the environment in which the culture is done (e.g. fresh water, brackish water, salt water or marine aquaculture or mariculture) or (iv) a specific character of the environment used for culture (e.g. cold-water or warm-water aquaculture; upland, low land, inland, coastal, estuarine), the use of restrictive terms would probably be more appropriate.
While aquaculture is generally considered a part of fisheries science, there is now a tendency to denote the distinction between the two by using the term ‘fisheries and aquaculture’, because of some of the basic differences in development and management.