If we want to plant a Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) tree we sow a seed of a Jackfruit, because Jackfruit tree originates from Jackfruit seed. in this way we get Jaam (black berry) tree from a Jaam seed, Coconut tree from Coconut, Jute plants from Jute seeds, paddy plant from paddy seed. Again some time we can get new plants from stem cutting also. The process by which a plant gives rise to grow a similar new plant is known as reproduction. Reproduction is one of the most important features of living beings.
We can grow a new plant from seeds, or some other organ of the plant may give rise to grow a new plant. So the process of reproduction is not of only one type. Different types of reproduction is described below:
1. Sexual Reproduction: We have learnt from the chapter fertilization that theunion of male and female gametes develop seeds. seeds are the product of sexual union. So the reproduction that takes place by Seeds is sexual reproduction. We get plants like Paddy (Oryza sativa), Wheat (Triticum),Maize, Jaam, Jackfruit etc. from their seeds.
2. Asexual Reproduction: Reproduction by any organ other than seed is calledasexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction may be of two types: (a) by asexual spore and (b) by vegetative organ. Plants like Algae, Fungi, Moss, Fern etc. reproduce by asexual spores.
3. Vegetative Reproduction: Reproduction that takes place by vegetativeorgan is called vegetative reproduction. Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by organs like root, stem or leaf etc. Vegetative reproduction again are of two types: (1) Normal and (2) Artificial.
Normal Vegetative reproduction: If we sow a potato or sweet potato, a rootof Kakrol or a branch of Madar it will naturally gives rise to grow a new plant. But if we plant a branch of Mango tree it will not give rise to grow a new planty rather it dies. When any part or organs of a plant naturally give rise to
to grow new plant is called natural vegetative reproduction. natural vegetative reproduction may occur by following means:
By Roots: Plants like sweet potato (a modified root),Dahlia,Kakrol, and Patoletc. reproduce by roots.
By Stem: Plants like Zinger, Turmeric, Shati, potato, Olkachu, Onion (these aremodified stems) etc. reproduce by stems. Banana, Pudina, Pineapple,Chrysanthemum etc. reproduce by sucker (a modified stem). Shajina, Madar,Chhatim, and Jiga etc. give rise to grow new plants by planting their branches. New plant also originates from young Bamboo shoots.
By leaf: Reproduction of Pathharkuchi(Bryophyllum)takes place by its leaf.When a leaf is left on the earth new buds originates from every notch of its margin and gives rise to a new plant.
Artificial Vegetative Reproduction: Branches of mango tree do not give riseto grow a new plant rather the branch become sapless. But if a bandage layering is made by the branch and plants it, it gives rise to a new plant. Artificial vegetative reproduction is being done in various methods by human beings. Various methods of vegetative reproduction are: Cutting, Layering, Budding, and Grafting etc. artificial vegetative reproduction may be done in plants like Mango. Lichi, Boroi etc.
1. The flowers and fruits of new plants bear the similar characteristics as those of its mother plant.
2. The new plants give early flowers and fruits.