I. Choose the correct answer
1. ____________ society is constantly changing with additions, assimilations and omissions from within and outside.
[Answer: a) Human]
2. The First women doctor in India was
b. Muthulakshmi Ammaiyar
c. Moovalur Ramamirdham
d. Panditha Ramabai
[Answer: b) Muthulakshmi Ammaiyar]
3. The practice of sati was abolished in ____________.
[Answer: c) 1829]
4. B.M Malabari was a
[Answer: d) journalist]
5. Which of the following was/were the reform movement(s)?
a. Brahma Samaj
b. Prarthana Samaj
c. Arya Samaj
d. all the above
[Answer: d) All the above]
6. The Bethune school was founded in ____________by J.E.D. Bethune.
[Answer: b) 1849]
7. Which commission recommended to start primary schools for girls in 1882 ?
[Answer: c) Hunter ]
8. Sarada’s child Marriage Bill fixing the minimum marriageable age for girls at ____________.
[Answer: d) 14]
II Fill in the blanks
1. Calcutta Female Juvenile society was setup by the Christian missionaries in 1819.
2. Velunachiyar of Sivaganga fought bravely against the British.
3. Servants of India Society was started by Gopala Krishna Gokhale.
4. Periyar E.V.R. was the one of the greatest social reformer of Tamil Nadu.
5. Kandukuri Veeresalingam published a journal called Viveka vardhani.
III Match the following
1. Theosophical society - Italian traveler
2. Sarada Sadan - Social evil
3. Wood’s Despatch - Annie Besant
4. Niccolo Conti – Pandita RamaBhai
5. Dowry – 1854
1. Theosophical society - Annie Besant
2. Sarada Sadan - Pandita RamaBhai
3. Wood’s Despatch - 1854
4. Niccolo Conti - Italian traveler
5. Dowry - Social evil
IV State True or False
1. Women were honoured in Rig Vedic period. [Answer: True]
2. Devadasi system was a social evil. [Answer: True]
3. Raja Rammohan Roy, was the pioneer of Indian social reform movement. [Answer: True]
4. Reservation of 23% to women envisaged an improvement in the socio-political status of women. [Answer: False]
Correct statement: Reservation of 33 % to women envisaged an improvement in the socio-political status of women.
5. The age of marriage was raised for boys and girls by the Sharda Act of 1930. [Answer: True]
V Choose the correct statement
1. Find out the correct pair.
a. Women’s university - Prof. D.K. Karve
b. Justice Ranade - Arya Samaj
c. Widow Remarriage Act - 1855
d. Rani Lakshmi Bhai - Delhi
[Answer: a) Women’s university - Prof. D.K. Karve]
2. Find the odd one out.
a) child marriage
c) devadasi system
d) widow remarriage
[Answer: d) widow remarriage]
3. Consider the following Statements
i. Begum Hazarat Mahal, Rani Lakshmi Bhai led an armed revolt against the British
ii. Velunachiyar of Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu fought bravely against the British
Which of the statement (s) given above is/or correct?
a) i only
b) ii only
c) i and ii
d) neither i nor ii
[Answer: c) i and ii]
4. Assertion (A): Raja Rammohan Roy is most remembered by all Indians
Reason (R): He wiped out the evil practice of Sati form the Indian Society
a) A and R are wrong
b) A is correct and R is Wrong
c) A is correct and R explains A
d) A is correct and R does not explain A
[Answer: c) A is correct and R explains A]
VI Answer the following in one or two sentences
1. Name the prominent leaders who fought for the upliftment of women.
Answer: During the British Raj, many socio- religious reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswathi, Keshab Chandra Sen, Iswara Chandra Vidya Sagar, Pandita Ramabai, Dr. Muthulakshmi, Jyoti rao phule, Periyar E.V.R, Dr. Dharmambal were the prominent leaders who fought for the upliftment of women.
2. List out some social evils.
Answer: Sati, child marriages, female infanticide, Purdah system and slavery were some of the social evils that existed in Indian Society.
3. Who were the notable women during the medieval period?
Answer: Some of the notable women during the medieval period were Razia sultana, Queen Durgavati, Chand bibi, Nurjahan, Jahan nara, Jijabai and Mira bai.
4. Mention the important women freedom fighters of India.
Answer: Velunachiyar of Sivaganga, Begum Hazrat Mahal and Rani Lakshmi Bhai of Jhansi were important women freedom fighters of India.
5. Give a note on Sati.
(i) Sati was social evil that prevailed in Indian Society especially among the Rajputs.
(ii) The feudal society of the time encouraged “sati” which meant self-immolation of the widow on the funeral pyre of her husband.
(iii) Earlier it was a voluntary act but later by the relatives forced the widow to sit on the funeral pyre.
VII Answer the following in detail
1. Trace the role of women in freedom struggle.
(i) The spread of female education led to several other social reforms of great consequences, such as the abolition of purdah system, participation of women in the freedom struggle.
(ii) In the early anti-colonial struggle women played major roles in various capacities.
(iii) Velunachiyar of Sivaganga fought violently against the British and restored her rule in Sivaganga.
(iv) Begum Hazrat Mahal, Rani Lakshmi Bhai of Jhansi led an armed revolt of 1857 against the British.
(v) In the freedom struggle thousands of women came out of their homes, boycotted foreign goods, marched in processions, defied laws, received lathi charges and Courted jails.
2. Explain the contribution of the Social Reformers for the eradication of social evils.
The contribution of the social reformers for the eradication of social evils is listed below.
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
(i) Raja Rammohan Roy was, the pioneer of Indian social reform movement by abolishing sati in 1829 with the help of Lord William Bentinck.
(ii) He also protested against the child marriage and female infanticide and favoured the remarriage of widows.
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidhyasagar :
(i) Ishwar Chandra Vidhyasagar carried on the movement for female education, widow remarriage and abolition of polygamy in Bengal.
(ii) He was instrumental to passing of the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act in 1856.
(iii) His son Narayanachandra set an example to others by marrying a widow of his choice.
(c) Kandukuri Veeresalingam:
(i) Veeresalingam Pantulu published a journal Viveka Vardhani.
(ii) He opened his first girls’ school in 1874, and made widow remarriage and female education the key points of his programme for social reform.
(d) M.G. Ranade and B.M. Malabari:
(i) In Bombay presidency, M.G. Ranade and B.M. Malabari carried on the movement for the upliftment of women.
(ii) In 1869, Ranade joined the Widow Remarriage Association and encouraged widow remarriage and female education.
(iii) He opposed child marriage.
(iv) In 1884, B.M. Malabari, a journalist, started a movement for the abolition of child marriage.
(e) Gopal Krishna Gokhale:
In 1905, Gopal Krishna Gokhale started the Servants of India Society to reform the society with various measures.
(f) Periyar E.V.R.:
Periyar E.V.R. was one of the greatest social reformers of Tamil Nadu. He advocated upliftment of women education, widow remarriage and opposed child marriages.
(g) Women Reformers :
(i) In 1889, Pandita Ramabai opened Sarada Sadan for Hindu widows in Bombay.
(ii) Dr. Annie Besant established Theosophical society to developed general social reform programme.
(iii) Dr. S.Dharmambal showed great interest in implementing widow remarriage and women education.
(iv) Moovalur Ramamirdham Ammaiyar opposed Devadasi system along with Dr. Muthulakshmi Ammaiyar.
3. Give a detailed account on the Impact of reform movement.
(i) Significant advances were made in the field of emancipation of women.
(ii) It created of national awakening among the masses.
(iii) It created the feeling of sacrifice, service and rationalism.
(iv) The practice of sati and infanticide were made illegal.
(v) It permitted widow remarriage.
(vi) The following legislations have enhanced the status of women in matters of marriage adoption and inheritance.
Legislation : Provision
a) Bengal regulation of XXI, 1804 - Female infanticide was declared illegal
b) Regulation of XVII, 1829 - Practice of sati was declared illegal
c) Hindus widow’s Remarriage Act,1856 - It permitted widow remarriage
d) The Native Marriage Act,1872 - The child Marriage was prohibited
e) The Sharda Act,1930 - The age of marriage was raised was raised for boys and girls
f) Devadasi abolition Act,1947 - It abolished Devadsai system
VIII Project and Activity
1. Prepare an information package of the social reformers contributed in the development of women. ( Choose any one reformer and collect information related to him).
2. Group Discussion: Participation of Women in Freedom Movement.