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# Python Functions: Book Back Questions and Answers

Choose the best answer, Answer the following questions

Computer Science : Core Python : Python Functions

Evaluation

Part – I

Choose the best answer:         (1 Mark)

1.A named blocks of code that are designed to do one specific job is called as

(a) Loop

(b) Branching

(c) Function

(d) Block

2.A Function which calls itself is called as

(a) Built-in

(b) Recursion

(c) Lambda

(d) return

3. Which function is called anonymous un-named function

(a) Lambda

(b) Recursion

(c) Function

(d) define

4. Which of the following keyword is used to begin the function block?

(a) define

(b) for

(c) finally

(d) def

5. Which of the following keyword is used to exit a function block?

(a) define

(b) return

(c) finally

(d) def

6. While defining a function which of the following symbol is used.

(a) ; (semicolon)

(b) . (dot)

(c) : (colon)

(d) \$ (dollar)

7.In which arguments the correct positional order is passed to a function?

(a) Required

(b) Keyword

(c) Default

(d) Variable-length

8.Read the following statement and choose the correct statement(s).

(I) In Python, you don’t have to mention the specific data types while defining function.

(II) Python keywords can be used as function name.

(a) I is correct and II is wrong

(b) Both are correct

(c) I is wrong and II is correct

(d) Both are wrong

9.Pick the correct one to execute the given statement successfully. if ____ : print(x, " is a leap year")

(a) x%2=0

(b) x%4==0

(c) x/4=0

(d) x%4=0

10. Which of the following keyword is used to define the function testpython(): ?

(a) define

(b) Pass

(c) def

(d) while

Part – II

Answer the following questions: (2 Marks)

1. What is function?

Ans. Functions are nothing but a group of related statements that perform a specific task.

2. Write the different types of function.

Ans.

Functions            :               Description

User - defined functions   :      Functions defined by the users themselves

Built in functions         :            Functions that are inbuilt with in Python.

Lambda functions           :           Functions that are anonymous un-named function.

Recursion functions      :     Functions that calls itself is known as recursive. 3. What are the main advantages of function?

Ans. Main advantages of functions are

(i) It avoids repetition and makes high degree of code reusing.

(iij It provides better modularity for your application.

4. What is meant by scope of variable? Mention its types.

Ans. Scope of variable refers to the part of the program, where it is accessible, i.e., area where the variables can refer (use). The scope holds the current set of variables and their values. The two types of scopes - local scope and global scope.

5. Define global scope.

Ans. A variable, with global scope can be used anywhere in the program. It can be created by defining a variable outside the scope of any function/block.

6. What is base condition in recursive function

Ans. (i) A recursive function calls itself. Imagine a process would iterate indefinitely if not stopped by some condition. Such a process is known as infinite iteration.

(ii) The condition that is applied in any recursive function is known as base condition.

(iii) A base condition is must in every recursive function otherwise it will continue to execute like an infinite loop.

7. How to set the limit for recursive function? Give an example.

Ans.To set the limit for recursive function using sys. setrecursionlimit (limit _value).

Example:

import sys

sys.setrecursionlimit(3000)

def fact(n):

if n==0:

return 1

else:

return n * fact(n-1)

print(fact (2000))

Part – III

Answer the following questions:     (3 Marks)

1. Write the rules of local variable.

Ans. Rules of local variable :

(i) A variable with local scope can be accessed only within the function/block that it is created in.

ii) When a variable is created inside the function/block, the variable becomes local to it.

(iii) A local variable only exists while the function is executing.

(iv) The formate arguments are also local to function.

2. Write the basic rules for global keyword in python.

Ans.  Rules of global Keyword : The basic rules for global keyword in Python are:

(I) When we define a variable outside a function, it’s global by default. You don’t have to use global keyword.

(i) We use global keyword to read and write a global variable inside a function.

(ii) Use of global keyword outside a function has no effect.

3. What happens when we modify global variable inside the function?

Ans. It shows an error, unbound local error.

4. Differentiate ceil() and floor() function?

Ans. ceil () : It returns the smallest integer greater that or equal to the given value.

floor () : It returns the largest integer less than or equal to given value.

5. Write a Python code to check whether a given year is leap year or not.

Ans. y = int(input ("Enter year")

if y%4==0:

print ("The given year is a leap year")

else:

print ("The given year is not a leap year")

6. What is composition in functions?

Ans. (i) Tie value returned by a function may be used as an argument for another function in a nested manner.

(ii) This is called composition. For example, if we wish to take a numeric value or an expression as a input from the user, we take the input string from the user using the function input() and apply eval() function to evaluate its value

7. How recursive function works?

Ans. (i) Recursive function is called by some external code.

(ii) If the base condition is met then the program gives meaningful output and exits.

(iii) Otherwise, function does some required processing and then calls itself to continue recursion.

8. What are the points to be noted while defining a function?

Ans. When defining functions there are multiple things that need to be noted;

(i) Function blocks begin with the keyword "def" followed by function name and parenthesis ().

(ii) Any input parameters or arguments should be placed within these parentheses when you define a function.

(iii) The code block always comes after colon(;) and is indented.

(iv) The statement ’’return [expression]" exits a function, optionally passing back an expression to the caller. A "return" with no arguments is the same as return None.

Part – IV

Answer the following questions:     (5 Marks)

1. Explain the different types of function with an example.

Ans. Type of functions:

Functions     :                      Description

User - defined functions  :      Functions defined by the users themselves

Built in functions           :       Functions that are inbuilt with in Python.

Lambda functions           :      Functions that are anonymous un-rfamed function.

Recursion functions    :    Functions that calls itself is known as recursive. Syntax for user defined function:

def<function_name ([parameter 1, parameter 2….. ])>:

<Block of Statement >

return<expression / None> a

(i) Block : A block is one or more lines of code, grouped together so that they are treated as one big sequence of statements while execution. In Python, statements in a block are written with indentation. Usually, a block begins when a line is indented (by four spaces) and all the statements of the block should be at same indent level.

(ii) Nested Block : A block within a block is called nested block. When the first block statement is indented by a single tab space, the second block of statement is indented by double tab spaces.

Here is an example of defining a function;

Do_Something():

value = 1 # Assignment Statement

return value #Return Statement

(iii) Lambda function is mostly used for creating small and one-time anonymous function.

(iv) Lambda functions are mainly used in combination with the functions like filter(), map() and reduce().

Syntax of Anonymous Functions:

The syntax for anonymous functions is as follows:

lambda [argument(s)]: expression

Example:

sun = lambda argl, arg2: argl + arg2

print (The Sum is: ‘, sum(30,40)

print (The Sum is : ‘, sum(-30, 40)

Output :

The Sum is : 70

The Sum is : 10

Built-in Functions : Functions which are using Python libraries are called Built-in function.

x=20

y=-23.2

print('x =abs(x))

print('y = abs(y))

Output:

x = 20

y = 23.2

Recursive function : A recursive function calls itself. Imagine a process would iterate indefinitely if not stopped by some condition! Such a process is known as infinite iteration. The condition that is applied in any recursive function is known as base condition. A base condition is must in every recursive function otherwise it will continue to execute like an infinite loop.

Overview of how recursive function works :

(i) Recursive function is called by some external code.

(ii) If the base condition is met then the program gives meaningful output and exits.

(iii) Otherwise, function does some required processing and then calls itself to continue recursion.

Here is an example of recursive function used to calculate factorial.

Example :

def fact(n):

if n==0:

return 1

else:

return n * fact (n-1)

print (fact (0))

print (fact (5))

Output:

1

120

2. Explain the scope of variables with an example.

Ans. Scope of variable refers to the part of the program, where it is accessible, i.e., area where the variables refer (use). The scope holds the current set of variables and their values. The two types of scopes - local scope and global scope.

Local Scope : A variable declared inside the function's body or in the local scope is known as local variable.

Rules of local variable :

(i) A variable with local scope can be accessed only within the function/block that it is created in.

(ii) When a variable is created inside the function/block, the variable becomes local to it.

(iiii) A local variable only exists while the function is executing.

(iv) The formate arguments are also local to function.

(v) Example: Create a Local Variable

def loc():

y=0 # local scope

print(y)

loc()

Output:

0

(vi) Example : Accessing local variable outside the scope

def loc():

y = "local"

loc()

print(y)

(vii) When we run the above code, the output shows the following error:

The above error occurs because we are trying to access a local variable ‘y’ in a global scope.

NameError: name 'y' is not defined

Global Scope : A variable, with global scope can be used anywhere in the program. It can be created by defining a variable outside the scope of any function/block.

Rules of global Keyword:

The basic rules for global keyword in Python are:

(i)  When we define a variable outside a function, it’s global by default. You don’t have to use global keyword.

(ii) We use global keyword to read and write a global variable inside a function.

(iii) Use of global keyword outside a function has no effect.

Use of global Keyword :

(i) Example : Accessing global Variable From Inside a Function

c = 1 # global variable

print(c)

Output:

1

(ii) Example : Accessing global Variable From Inside a Function

c = 1 # global variable

print(c)

Output:

1

(iii) Example: Modifying Global Variable From Inside the Function

c = 1                             # global variable

c = c + 2               # increment c by 2

print(c)

Output:

Unbound Local Error: local variable 'c' referenced before assignment

(iv) Example.: Changing Global Variable From

Inside a Function using global keyword

x = 0                # global variable

global x

x = x + 5      # increment by 2

print ("Inside add() function x value is:”, x)

print ("In main x value is :”, x)

Output:

Inside add() function x value is : 5

In main x value is : 5

(v) In the above program, x is defined as a global variable. Inside the add() function, global keyword is used for x and we increment the variable x by 5. Now We can see the change on the global variable x outside the function i.e the value of x is 5.

3. Explain the following built-in functions.

(a) id()

(b) chr()

(c) round()

(d) type()

(e) pow() 4. Write a Python code to find the L.C.M. of two numbers.

Ans. Program :

def lcm(x, y):

if x>y:

greater = x

else:

greater = y

while (True):

if ((greater % x == 0) and (greater % y == 0)):

lcm = greater

break

greater + = 1

return 1cm

a = int (input ("Enter number 1"))

b = int (input ("Enter number 2"))

print ("The LCM of", a, "and", b, "is", LCM(a,b))

5. Explain recursive function with an example.

Ans. (i) A recursive function calls itself. Imagine a process would iterate indefinitely if not stopped by some condition.

(ii) Such a process is known as infinite iteration. The condition that is applied in any recursive function is known as base condition.

(iii) A base condition is must in every recursive function otherwise it will continue to execute like an infinite loop.

Overview of how recursive function works :

(i) Recursive function is called by some external code.

(ii) If the base condition is met then the program gives meaningful output and exits.

(iii) Otherwise, function does some required processing and then calls itself to continue recursion.

Here is an example of recursive function used to calculate factorial.

Example :

def fact(n):

if n == 0:

return 1

else:

return n * fact (n-1)

print (fact (0))

print (fact (5))

Output:

1

120

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12th Computer Science : Chapter 7 : Core Python : Python Functions : Python Functions: Book Back Questions and Answers |