Name the diseases associated with MO.
MO typically affects multiple organ systems. The respi-ratory system frequently develops upper and lower airway problems. Upper airway issues include various degrees of upper airway obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea. Lower airway problems manifest as restrictive lung disease, atelectasis, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. One or more of these problems can result in hypoxemia. Frequently, this occurs during sleep. Hypoxic episodes lead to sympathetic discharge and arousal. When this cycle recurs several times during the night, restful sleep becomes interrupted and patients suffer from daytime somnolence, irritability, impaired cognition, and reduced concentration. They are accident-prone and frequently suffer trauma, which brings them to the operating room.
Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, dysrhythmias, pulmonary artery hyper-tension, right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular fail-ure, and pulmonary emboli occur frequently. Hypoxemia exacerbates many of the cardiovascular problems. Cerebro-vascular accidents, diabetes mellitus, and hiatus hernia occur frequently. Surgery is frequently required for arthritis of weight-bearing joints or malignancies. MO patients have a high incidence of malignancies originating in the breasts, prostate, uterus, cervix, colon, and rectum (Table 39.1).