Methods employed in locating soundings
The soundings are located with reference to the shore traverse by observations made
(i) entirely from the boat, (ii) entirely from the shore or (iii) from both.
The following are the methods of location
1. By cross rope.
2. By range and time intervals.
3. By range and one angle from the shore.
4. By range and one angle from the boat.
5. By two angles from the shore.
6. By two angles from the boat.
7. By one angle from shore and one from boat.
8. By intersecting ranges.
9. By tacheometry.
A range or range line is the line on which soundings are taken. They are, in general, laid perpendicular to the shore line and parallel to each other if the shore is straight or are arranged radiating from a prominent object when the shore line is very irregular.
Each range line is marked by means of signals erected at two points on it at a considerable distance apart. Signals can be constructed in a variety of ways. They should be
readily seen and easily distinguished from each other. The most satisfactory and economic type of signal is a wooden tripod structure dressed with white and coloured signal of cloth. The position of the signals should be located very accurately since all the soundings are to be located with reference to these signals.
Location by Cross-Rope
This is the most accurate method of locating the soundings and may be used for rivers, narrow lakes and for harbours. It is also used to determine the quantity of materials removed by dredging the soundings being taken before and after the dredging work is done. A single wire or rope is stretched across the channel etc. as shown in Fig.4.6 and is marked by metal tags at appropriate known distance along the wire from a reference point or zero station on shore. The soundings are then taken by a weighted pole. The position of the pole during a sounding is given by the graduated rope or line.
In another method, specially used for harbours etc., a reel boat is used to stretch the rope. The zero end of the rope is attached to a spike or any other attachment on one shore. The rope is would on a drum on the reel boat. The reel boat is then rowed across the line of sounding, thus unwinding the rope as it proceeds. When the reel boat reaches the other shore, its anchor is taken ashore and the rope is wound as tightly as possible. If anchoring is not possible, the reel is taken ashore and spiked down. Another boat, known as the sounding boat, then starts from the previous shore and soundings are taken against each tag of the rope. At the end of the soundings along that line, the reel boat is rowed back along the line thus winding in the rope. The work thus proceeds.
Location by Range and Time Intervals
In this method, the boat is kept in range with the two signals on the shore and is rowed along it at constant speed. Soundings are taken at different time intervals. Knowing the constant speed and the total time elapsed at the instant of sounding, the distance of the total point can be known along the range. The method is used when the width of channel is small and when great degree of accuracy is not required. However, the method is used in conjunction with other methods, in which case the first and the last soundings along a range are located by angles from the shore and the intermediate soundings are located by interpolation according to time intervals.
Location by Range and One Angle from the Shore
In this method, the boat is ranged in line with the two shore signals and rowed along the ranges. The point where sounding is taken is fixed on the range by observation of the angle from the shore. As the boat proceeds along the shore, other soundings are also fixed by the observations of angles from the shore. Thus B is the instrument station, A1 A2 is the range along which the boat is rowed and ?1, ?2, ?3 etc., are the angles measured at B from points 1, 2, 3 etc. The method is very accurate and very convenient for plotting. However, if the angle at the sounding point (say angle ?) is less than 30 o , the fix becomes poor. The nearer the intersection angle (?) is to a right angle, the better. If the angle diminishes to about 30 o a new instrument station must be chosen. The only defect of the method is that the surveyor does not have an immediate control in all the observation. If all the points are to be fixed by angular observations from the shore, a note-keeper will also be required along with the instrument man at shore since the observations and the recordings are to be done rapidly. Generally, the first and last soundings and every tenth sounding are fixed by angular observations and the intermediate points are fixed by time intervals. Thus the points with round mark are fixed by angular observations from the shore and the points with cross marks are fixed by time intervals. The arrows show the course of the boat, seaward and shoreward on alternate sections.
To fix a point by observations from the shore, the instrument man at B orients his line of sight towards a shore signal or any other prominent point (known on the plan) when the reading is zero. He then directs the telescope towards the leadsman or the bow of the boat, and is kept continually pointing towards the boat as it moves. The surveyor on the boat holds a flag for a few seconds and on the fall of the flag, the sounding and the angle are observed simultaneously.
The angles are generally observed to the nearest 5 minutes. The time at which the flag falls is also recorded both by the instrument man as well as on the boat. In order to avoid acute intersections, the lines of soundings are previously drawn on the plan and suitable instrument stations are selected.
Location by Range and One Angle from the Boat.
The method is exactly similar to the previous one except that the angular fix is made by angular observation from the boat. The boat is kept in range with the two shore signals and is rowed along it. At the instant the sounding is taken, the angle, subtended at the point between the range and some prominent point B on the sore is measured with the help of sextant. The telescope is directed on the range signals, and the side object is brought into coincidence at the instant the sounding is taken. The accuracy and ease of plotting is the
same as obtained in the previous method. Generally, the first and the last soundings, and some of the intermediate soundings are located by angular observations and the rest of the soundings are located by time intervals.
As compared to the previous methods, this method has the following advantages :
1. Since all the observations are taken from the boat, the surveyor has better control over the operations.
2. The mistakes in booking are reduced since the recorder books the readings directly
as they are measured.
3. On important fixes, check may be obtained by measuring a second angle towards some other signal on the shore.
4. The obtain good intersections throughout, different shore objects may be used for reference to measure the angles.
Location by Two Angles from the Shore
In this method, a point is fixed independent of the range by angular observations from two points on the shore. The method is generally used to locate some isolated points. If this method is used on an extensive survey, the boat should be run on a series of approximate ranges. Two instruments and two instrument men are required. The position of instrument is selected in such a way that a strong fix is obtained. New instrument stations should be chosen when the intersection angle (?) falls below 30 o . Thus A and B are the two instrument stations. The distance d between them is very accurately measured. The instrument stations A and B are precisely connected to the ground traverse or triangulation, and their positions on plan are known. With both the plates clamped to zero, the instrument man at A bisects B ; similarly with both the plates clamped to zero, the instrument man at B bisects A. Both the instrument men then direct the line of sight of the telescope towards the leadsman and continuously follow it as the boat moves. The surveyor on the boat holds a flag for a few seconds, and on the fall of the flag the sounding and the angles are observed simultaneously. The co-ordinates of the position P of the sounding may be computed from the relations:
The method has got the following advantages:
1. The preliminary work of setting out and erecting range signals is eliminated.
2. It is useful when there are strong currents due to which it is difficult to row the boat along the range line.
The method is, however, laborious and requires two instruments and two instrument.
Location by Two Angles from the Boat
In this method, the position of the boat can be located by the solution of the three-point problem by observing the two angles subtended at the boat by three suitable shore objects of known position. The three-shore points should be well-defined and clearly visible. Prominent natural objects such as church spire, lighthouse, flagstaff, buoys etc., are selected for this purpose. If such points are not available, range poles or shore signals may be taken. Thus A, B and C are the shore objects and P is the position of the boat from which the angles ? and ? are measured. Both the angles should be observed simultaneously with the help of two sextants, at the instant the sounding is taken. If both the angles are observed by surveyor alone, very little time should be lost in taking the observation. The angles on the circle are read afterwards. The method is used to take the soundings at isolated points. The surveyor has better control on the operations since the survey party is concentrated in one boat. If sufficient number of prominent points are available on the shore, preliminary work o setting out and erecting range signals is eliminated. The position of the boat is located by the solution of the three point problem either analytically or graphically.
Location by One Angle from the Shore and the other from the Boat
This method is the combination of methods 5 and 6 described above and is used to locate the isolated points where soundings are taken. Two points A and B are chosen on the shore, one of the points (say A) is the instrument station where a theodolite is set up, and the other (say B) is a shore signal or any other prominent object. At the instant the sounding is taken at P, the angle ? at A is measured with the help of a sextant. Knowing the distance d between the two points A and B by ground survey, the position of P can be located by calculating the two co-ordinates x and y.
Location by Intersecting Ranges
This method is used when it is required to determine by periodical sounding at the same points, the rate at which silting or scouring is taking place. This is very essential on the harbors and reservoirs. The position of sounding is located by the intersection of two ranges, thus completely avoiding the angular observations. Suitable signals are erected at the shore. The boat is rowed along a range perpendicular to the shore and soundings are taken at the points in which inclined ranges intersect the range. However, in order to avoid the confusion, a definite system of flagging the range poles is necessary. The position of the range poles is determined very accurately by ground survey.
Location by Tacheometric Observations
The method is very much useful in smooth waters. The position of the boat is located by tacheometric observations from the shore on a staff kept vertically on the boat. Observing the staff intercept s at the instant the sounding is taken, the horizontal distance between the instrument stations and the boat is calculated by
The direction of the boat (P) is established by observing the angle (?) at the instrument station B with reference to any prominent object A The transit station should be near the water level so that there will be no need to read vertical angles. The method is unsuitable when soundings are taken far from shore.
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