LOCALIZED TYPES OF AMYLOID
Senile cerebral amyloidosis (Alzheimer disease) has Aβtype amyloid with fibrillaryprotein composed of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). It is found in Alzheimer plaques and in cerebral vessels. The gene for βAPP is located on chromosome 21.
Senile cardiac/systemic amyloidosis has ATTR type amyloid with fibrillary proteincomposed of transthyretin. This type of amyloidosis is seen in men older than 70 years and may cause heart failure as a result of restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopa-thy. Four percent of African Americans have a transthyretin (TTR) V1221 mutation with 1% being homozygous, serving as a risk for cardiac disease.
Endocrine type amyloidosis is seen in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (procal-citonin), adult-onset diabetes (amylin), and pancreatic islet cell tumors (amylin).