Dysfunction of the liver may be divided into 4 categories that may coexist:
• Hepatic failure occurs in the setting of hepatic necrosis secondary to acute liver failure, chronic liver disease, and hepatocyte dysfunction.
• Portal hypertension occurs in the setting of cirrhosis or increased portal venous blood flow.
• Cholestasis occurs in the setting of impaired bile flow due to hepatocyte dysfunction or biliary obstruction.
• Cirrhosis occurs in the setting of hepatocyte injury and is usually an irrevers-ible nodular regeneration that is end stage.