Chapter: Artificial Intelligence(AI) - Expert System

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Inference Engine

1. Forward Chaining Algorithm 2 Backward Chaining Algorithm

Inference Engine

 

The inference engine is a generic control mechanism for navigating through and manipulating knowledge and deduce results in an organized manner.

The inference engine's generic control mechanism applies the axiomatic (self-evident) knowledge present in the knowledge base to the task-specific data to arrive at some conclusion.

 

Inference engine the other key component of all expert systems.

 

Just a knowledge base alone is not of much use if there are no facilities for navigating through and manipulating the knowledge to deduce something from knowledge base.

 

A knowledge base is usually very large, it is necessary to have inferencing mechanisms that sea h through the database and deduce results in an organized manner.

 

 

The Forward chaining, Backward some chaining and Tree sea hes are of the techniques used for drawing inferences from the knowledge base.

 

1. Forward Chaining Algorithm

 

 

Forward chaining is a techniques for drawing inferences from Rule base. Forward-chaining inference is often called data driven.

 

The algorithm proceeds from a given situation to a desired goal, adding new assertions (facts) found.

 

A forward-chaining, system compares data in the working memory against the conditions in the IF parts of the rules and determines which rule to fire.

 

Data Driven

 


Example : Forward Channing

 

Given : A Rule base contains      following Rule set

Rule 1: If A and      C     Then       F

Rule 2: If A and      E     Then       G

Rule 3: If B            Then       E

Rule 4: If G            Then       D

Problem : Prove               

If     A and B true   Then D is true

 

Solution :

 

‡  Start  with input given A, B is true and then

 

start at Rule 1 and go forward/down till a rule

 

“fires'' is found.

 

First iteration :

 

‡  Rule 3 fires : conclusion E is true

 

new knowledge found

 

No other rule fires;

 

end of first iteration.

 

Goal not found;

 

new knowledge found at (ii);

 

go for second iteration Second iteration :

 

(v)                 ‡     Rule 2 fires     : conclusion    G is true

                     ‡     new knowledge found   

(vi)                ‡     Rule 4 fires     : conclusion    D is true

 

Goal found;

Proved


2 Backward Chaining Algorithm

 

 

Backward chaining is a techniques for drawing inferences from Rule base. Backward-chaining inference is often called goal driven.

 

The algorithm proceeds from desired goal, adding new assertions found.

 

A backward-chaining, system looks for the action in the THEN clause of the rules that matches the specified goal.

 

Goal Driven

 


‡ Example : Backward Channing         

  Given : Rule base contains following Rule set  

Rule 1: If               A and     C     Then       F

Rule 2: If               A and     E     Then       G

Rule 3: If               B           Then       E

Rule 4: If               G           Then       D

 

                          Problem : Prove

 

If  A and B true      Then D is true

 

 

Solution :

 

(i)                               Start with goal ie     D is true

 

go backward/up till a rule "fires'' is found. First iteration :

 

‡  Rule 4 fires :

 

new sub goal to prove G is true

 

go backward

 

Rule 2 "fires''; conclusion: A is true

 

new sub goal to prove E is true

 

go backward;

 

no other rule fires; end of first iteration.

 

new sub goal found at (iii);

 

go for second iteration

 

Second iteration :

 

Rule 3 fires :

 

conclusion B is true (2nd input found)

 

both inputs A and B ascertained

 

Proved

 

Often a knowledge base is represented as a branching network or tree.

Many tree sea hing algorithms exists but two basic approaches are depth-first sea h and breadth-first sea h.

Note : Here these two sea h are briefly mentioned since they were described with examples in the previous lectures.

Depth-First Sea h

‡ Algorithm begins at initial node

‡ Check to see if the left-most below initial node (call node A) is a goal node.

‡ If not, include node A on a list of sub-goals outstanding.

‡ Then starts with node A and looks at the first node below it, and so on.

‡ If no more lower level nodes, and goal node not reached, then start from last node on outstanding list and follow next route of descent to the right.

Breadth-First Sea h

‡ Algorithm starts by expanding all the nodes one level below the initial node.

Expand all nodes till a solution is reached or the tree is completely expanded.

Find the shortest path from initial assertion to a solution.


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