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Chapter: Total Quality Management : TQM Tools & Techniques

Important Short Questions and Answers: TQM Tools & Techniques

Total Quality Management - TQM Tools & Techniques

66. Give the seven tools of quality?


i.    Pareto Diagram


ii.   Process Flow Diagram


iii.   Cause-and- Effect Diagram iv. Check Sheets


v.   Histogram


vi.  Control Charts


vii.  Scatter Diagrams


67. Define Statistics?


Statistics is defined as the science that deals with the collection, tabulation,analysis, interpretation, and presentation of quantitative data.


68. What is a measure of central tendency?


A measure of central tendency of a distribution is a numerical value that describes the central position of the data or how the data tend to build up in the center.


69. What is Measures of dispersion?


Measures of dispersion describe how the data are spread out or scattered on


each side of the central value. The measures of dispersion used are range and standard deviation.


70. What is a normal curve?


The normal curve is a symmetrical, unimodal, bell-shaped distribution withthe mean, median and mode having the same value.


71. What is the use of the control chart?


The control chart is used to keep a continuing record of a particular quality characteristic. It is a picture of process over time.


72. Give the objectives of the attribute charts?


i.    Determine the average quality level.


ii.   Bring to the attention of management any changes in the average. iii. Improve the product quality.


iv.   Evaluate the quality performance of operating and management personnel. v. Determine acceptance criteria of a product before shipment to the customer.


73. Define Six Sigma Problem Solving Method?


Define - improvement opportunity with an emphasis on increasing customer satisfaction.


Measure  - determine process capability (Cp/ Cpk) & dpmo


Analyze - identify the vital few process input variables that affect key product output variables (“Finding the knobs”).

Improve - Make changes to process settings, redesign processes, etc. to reduce the number of defects of key output variables.

Control - Implement  process  control  plans,  install  real-  time  process monitoring tools,standardize processes to maintain levels.

74. What are the new seven management tools?


i.    Affinity Diagram


ii.   Interrelationship Digraph iii. Tree Diagram


iv.   Matrix Diagram


v.   Prioritization Matrices


vi.   Process Decision Program Chart vii. Activity Network diagram



75. Define Benchmarking?


Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. It is a tool for continuous improvement.


76. Enumerate the steps to benchmark?


a)   Decide what to benchmark


b)   Understand current performance c) Plan


d)   Study others


e)    Learn from the data f) Use the findings



77. What are the types of benchmarking?


i.    Internal


ii.   Competitive


iii.   Process


78. What is a QFD?


Quality Function Deployment is a planning tool used to fulfill


customer expectations. It is a disciplined approach to product design, engineering, and production and provides in- depth evaluation of a product.


79. What are the benefits of QFD?


i.    Customer driven


ii.   Reduces implementation time iii. Promotes teamwork


iv.  Provides documentation


80. What are the steps required to construct an affinity diagram?


i.    Phrase the objective


ii.   Record all responses iii. Group the responses


iv.   Organize groups in an affinity diagram


81. What are the parts of house of quality?


i.    Customer requirements


ii.   Prioritized customer requirements iii. Technical descriptors


iv.  Prioritized technical descriptors


v.   Relationship between requirements and descriptors vi. Interrelationship between technical descriptors


82. How will you build a house of quality?


a)   List customer requirements


b)   List technical descriptors


c)   Develop a relationship matrix between WHATs and HOWs\

d)  Develop an interrelationship matrix between HOWs

e) Competitive assessments

f) Develop prioritized customer requirements

g) Develop prioritized technical descriptors


83. Define FMEA?


Failure Mode Effect Analysis is an analytical technique that combines the technology and experience of people in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product or process and planning for its elimination.


84. What are the stages of FMEA?


1.Specifying possibilities

a. Functions


b. Possible failure modes

c. Root causes

d. Effects


e Detection/Prevention

2.Quantifying risk

a. Probability of cause

b. Severity of effect


c. Effectiveness of control to prevent cause

d. Risk priority number


3. Correcting high risk causes

a. Prioritizing work

b.Detailed action


c. Assigning action responsibility


d. Check points on completion

4. Revaluation of risk


85. What are the goals of TPM?


The overall goals of Total Productive Maintenance, which is an extension of TQM are


i. Maintaining and improving equipment capacity

ii. Maintaining equipment for life

iii.Using support from all areas of the operation

iv.Encouraging input from all employees

v.Using teams for continuous improvement


86.    Give the seven basic steps to get an organization started toward TPM? a) Management learns the new philosophy


b) Management promotes the new philosophy


c) Training is funded and developed for everyone in the organization

d) Areas of needed improvement are identified


e) Performance goals are formulated

f) An implementation plan is developed

g) Autonomous work groups are established


87.    What are the major loss areas?

i. Planned downtime

ii. Unplanned downtime

iii. Idling and minor stoppages

iv.         Slow-downs

v.Process nonconformities



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