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Programming and Data Structures - Linear Data Structures - Stacks, Queues

**1. Write down the algorithm for solving
Towers of Hanoi problem?**

Push parameters and return address on
stack.

If the stopping value has been reached
then pop the stack to return to previous level else move all except the final
disc from starting to intermediate needle.

Move final discs from start to
destination needle.

Move remaining discs from intermediate
to destination needle.

Return to previous level by popping
stack.

**2. What is a Stack ?**

A stack is a
non-primitive linear data structure and is an ordered collection of homogeneous
data elements.The other name of stack is Last-in -First-out list.

One of the most useful
concepts and frequently used data structure of variable size for problem
solving is the stack.

**3. What are the two operations of Stack?**

PUSH

POP

**4. What is a Queue ?**

A Queue is an ordered
collection of items from which items may be deleted at one end called the front
of the queue and into which tems may be inserted at the other end called rear
of the queue.Queue is called as First –in-First-Out(FIFO).

**5. What is a Priority Queue?**

Priority queue is a
data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements does determine
the results of its basic operations. Ascending and Descending priority queue
are the two types of Priority queue.

**6. What are the different ways to
implement list?**

Simple array implementation of list

Linked list implementation of list

cursor implementation of list

**7. What are the postfix and prefix forms
of the expression?**

A+B*(C-D)/(P-R)

Postfix form: ABCD-*PR-/+

Prefix form: +A/*B-CD-PR

**8. Explain the usage of stack in
recursive algorithm implementation?**

In recursive
algorithms, stack data structures is used to store the return address when a
recursive call is encountered and also to store the values of all the
parameters essential to the current state of the procedure.

**9. Write down the operations that can be
done with queue data structure?**

Queue is a first - in
-first out list. The operations that can be done with queue are insert and
remove.

**10. What is a circular queue?**

The
queue, which wraps around upon reaching the end of the array is called as
circular

queue.

**11.Give few examples for data
structures?**

Stacks

Queue

Linked list

Trees

Graphs

**12. List
out Applications of queue **

Operating systems often maintain a queue of
processes that are ready to execute or that are waiting for a particular event
to occur.

Computer
systems must often provide a “h processes, two programs, or even two systems.
This holding area is usually called a “buffer” and is
often implemented as a queue.

**13. How do you test for an empty queue?**

To test for an empty queue, we have to
check whether READ=HEAD where REAR is a pointer pointing to the last node in a
queue and HEAD is a pointer that pointer to the dummy header.

In the case of array
implementation of queue, the condition to be checked for an empty queue is
READ<FRONT.

**14.What are applications of stack?**

Conversion of
expression

Evaluation of expression

Parentheses matching

Recursion

**14.
****Define recursion? **

It is a technique and
it can be defined as any function that calls itself is called recursion. There
are some applications which are suitable for only recursion such as, tower of
Hanoi, binary tree traversals etc, can be implementing very easily and
efficiently.

**16.What are types of Queues?**

Simple queue
(ordinary queue)

Circular queue

Double ended queue

Priority queue

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