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# Important Short Questions and Answers: Induction Motor Drives

Solid State Drives - Induction Motor Drives - Important Short Questions and Answers: Induction Motor Drives

1.  What are the components of the applied voltage to the induction motor?

The applied voltage to the induction motor has two components at low frequencies. They are

a. Proportional to stator frequency.

b.To compensate for the resistance drop in the stator.

The second component deepens on the load on the motor and hence on rotor frequency.

2.  What is indirect flux control?

The method of maintaining the flux constant by providing a voltage boost proportional to slip frequency is a kind of indirect flux control. This method of flux control is not desirable if very good dynamic behaviour is required.

3. What is voltage source inverter?

Voltage source inverter is a kind of D.C. link converter, which is a two stage conversion device.

4. What is the purpose of inductance and capacitance in the D.C. link circuit?

The inductance in the D.C. link circuit provides smoothing whereas the capacitance maintains the constancy of link voltage. The link voltage is a controlled quality.

5. What are the disadvantages of square wave inverter in induction motor drive?

Square wave inverters have commutation problems at very low frequencies, as the D.C. link voltage available at these frequencies cannot charge the commutating capacitors sufficiently enough to commutate the thrusters. Those puts a limit on the lower frequency of operation. To extend the frequency towards zero, special charging circuits must be used.

6. What is slip controlled drive?

When the slip is used as a controlled quantity to maintain the flux constant in the motor the drive is called slip enrolled drive. By making the slip negative (i.e., decreasing the output frequency of the inverter) The machine may be made to operate as a generator and the energy of the rotating parts fed back to the mains by an additional line side converter or dissipated in a resistance for dynamic barking.

By keeping the slip frequency constant, braking at constant torque and current can be achieved. Thus braking is also fast.

7. What are the effects of harmonics in VSI fed induction motor drive?

The motor receives square wave voltages. These voltage has harmonic components. The  harmonics of the stator current cause additional losses and heating. These harmonics are also responsible for torque pulsations. The reaction of the fifth and seventh harmonics with the fundamental gives rise to the seventh harmonic pulsations in the torque developed. For a given induction motor fed from a square wave inverter the harmonic content in the current tends to remain constant independent of input frequency, with the rang of operating frequencies of the inverter.

8.  What is a current source inverter?

In a D.C. link converter, if the D.C. link current is controlled, the inverter is called a current source inverter, The current in the D.C. link is kept constant by a high inductance and he capacitance of the filter is dispensed with . A current source inverter is suitable for loads which present a low impedance to harmonic currents and have unity p.f.

9.  Explain about the commutation of the current source inverter.

The commutation of the inverter is load dependent. The load parameters form a part of the commutation circuit. A matching is therefore required between the inverter and the motor. Multimotor operation is not possible. The inverter must necessarily be a force commutated one as the induction motor cannot provide the reactive power for the inverter. The motor voltage is almost sinusoidal with superimposed spikes.

10. Give the features from which a slip controlled drive is developed.

The stator current of an induction motor operating on a variable frequency, variable voltage supply is independent of stator frequency if the air gap flux is maintained constant. However, it is a function of the rotor frequency. The torque developed is also a function of rotor frequency. The torque developed is also a function of rotor frequency only. Using these features a slip controlled drive can be developed employing a current source inverter to feed an induction motor.

11. How is the braking action produced in plugging?

In plugging, the barking torque is produced by interchange any two supply terminals, so that the direction of rotation of the rotating magnetic field is reversed with respect to the rotation of the motor. The electromagnetic torque developed provides the braking action and brings the rotor to a quick stop.

12. Where is rotor resistance control used?

Where the motors drive loads with intermittent type duty, such as cranes, ore or coal unloaders, skip hoists, mine hoists, lifts, etc. slip-ring induction motors with speed control by variation of resistance in the rotor circuit are frequently used. This method of speed control is employed for a motor generator set with a flywheel (Ilgner set) used as an automatic slip regulator under shock loading conditions.

13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of rotor resistance control?

Advantage of rotor resistance control is that motor torque capability remains unaltered even at low speeds. Only other method which has this advantage is variable frequency control. However, cost of rotor resistance control is very low compared to variable frequency control.

Major disadvantage is low efficiency due to additional losses in resistors connected in the rotor circuit.

14. Where is rotor resistance control used?

Where the motors drive loads with intermittent type duty, such as cranes, ore or coal unloaders, skip hoists, mine hoists, lifts, etc. slip-ring induction motors with speed control by variation of resistance in the rotor circuit are frequently used. This method of speed control is employed for a motor generator set with a flywheel (Ilgner set) used as an automatic slip regulator under shock loading conditions.

15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of rotor resistance control?

Advantage of rotor resistance control is that motor torque capability remains unaltered even at low speeds. Only other method which has this advantage is variable frequency control. However, cost of rotor resistance control is very low compared to variable frequency control. Major disadvantage is low efficiency due to additional losses in resistors connected in the rotor circuit.

16. How is the resistance in the output terminals of a chopper varied?

The resistance connected across the output terminals of a chopper can be varied form O to R by varying the time ratio of the chopper. When the chopper is always OFF, the supply is always connected to the resistance R. The time ratio in this case is zero and the effective resistance connected in R. Similarly when the chopper is always ON, the resistance is short circuited. The time ratio in the case is unity and the effective resistance connected is 0. Hence by varying the time ratio from 0 to 1, the value of resistance can be varied from R to O.

17. What is the function of inductance L and resistance R in the chopper resistance circuit?

A smoothing inductance L is used in the circuit to maintain the current at a constant value. Any short circuit in the chopper does not become effective due to L.

The value of R connected across the chopper is effective for all phases and its value can be related to the resistance to be connected in each phase if the conventional method has been used. The speed control range is limited by the resistance.

18. What are the disadvantages and advantages of chopper controlled resistance in the rotor circuit method?

The method is very inefficient because of losses in the resistance. It is suitable for intermittent loads such as elevators. At low speeds, in particular the motor has very poor efficiency. The rotor current is non-sinusoidal. They harmonics of the rotor current produce torque pulsations. These have a frequency which is six times the slip frequency.

Because of the increased rotor resistance, the power factor is better.

19. How is the range of speed control increased?

The range of speed control can be increased if a combination of stator voltage control and rotor resistance control is employed. Instead of using a high resistance rotor, a slip ring rotor with external rotor resistance can be used when stator voltage control is used for controlling the speed.

20. Why the static scherbius drive has a poor power factor?

Drive input power is difference between motor input power and the power fed back. Reactive input power is the sum of motor and inverter reactive power. Therefore, drive has a poor power factor throughout the range of its options.

21. How is super synchronous speed achieved?

Super synchronous speed can be achieved if the power is fed to the rotor from A.C. mains. This can be made possible by replacing the converter cascade by a cycloconverter. A cycloconverter allows power flow in either direction making the static sherbets drive operate at both sub and supper synchronous speeds.

22. Give the features of static scherbius drive

The torque pulsations and other reactions are minimal. The performance of the drive improves with respect to additional losses and torque pulsations. A smooth transition is possible from sub to super synchronous speeds without any commutation problems. Speed reversal is not possible. A step up transformer may be interposed between the lines and the converter, to reduce the voltage rating of the converter.

23. Where is Kramer electrical drive system used?

Some continuous rolling mills, large air blowers, mine ventilators, centrifugal pumps and any other mechanisms including pumps drives of hydraulic dredgers require speed adjustment in the range from 15 to 30% below or above normal. If the induction motor is of comparatively big size (100 to 200 KW) it becomes uneconomical to adjust speed by mean's pf external resistances due to copper losses as slip power is wasted as heat in the retort circuit resistance. In these case , the Kramer electrical drive system is used , where slip power recovery takes places.

24. What is the use of sub synchronous converter cascades?

Sub synchronous converter cascades have been used, till now, in applications requiring one quadrant operation. These can be employed for drives where at least one electrical barking is required. A four quadrant operation can also be made possible in these cascades, using suitable switching.

25. How is the speed control obtained in static Kramer drive?

For speed control below synchronous speed, the slip power is pumped back to the supply, where as for the case of speed above synchronous speed, additional slip power is injected into the rotor circuit.

26. What is static Kramer drive?

Instead of wasting the slip power in the rotor circuit resistance, it can be converted to 60 Hz A.C. and pumped back to the line. The slip power controlled drive that permits only a sub synchronous range of speed control through a converter cascade is know as static Kramer drive.

27. What is the use and functions of step down transformer is static Kramer drive?

For a restricted speed range closer to synchronous speed, the system power factor can be further improved by using a step -down transformer.

The step-down transformer has essentially two functions: besides improving the line power factor, it also helps to reduce the converter power ratings.

28. What are the advantages of static Kramer drive?

The static Kramer drive has been very popular in large power pump and fan-type drives, where the range of speed control is limited near, but below the synchronous speed. The drive system is very efficient and the converted power rating is low because t has to handle only the slip power, In fact, the power rating becomes lower with a more restricted range of speed control. The additional advantages are that the drive system has D.C. machine like characteristics and the control is very simple.

29. What are the causes of harmonic currents in static Kramer drive?

The rectification of slip power causes harmonic currents in the rotor, and these harmonics are reflected to the stator by the transformer action of the machine. The harmonic currents are also injected into the A.C. line by the inverter. As a result, the machine losses are increased and some amount of harmonic torque is produced. Each harmonic current in the rotor will create a reading magnetic filed and its direction of rotation will depend on the order pf the harmonic.

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Solid State Drives : Induction Motor Drives : Important Short Questions and Answers: Induction Motor Drives |