PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
What is Human Resource Management?
HRM is the study of activities regarding people working in an organization. It is a managerial function that tries to match an organization‘sneeds to the skills and abilities of its employees.
Definitions of HRM
Human resources management (HRM) is a management function concerned with hiring, motivating and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human resource management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals.
HRM is the personnel function which is concerned with procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the personnel of an organization for the purpose of contributing towards the accomplishments of the organization‘sobjectives. Therefore, personnel management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the performance of those operative functions (Edward B. Philippo).
According to the Invancevich and Glueck, ―HRM is concerned with the most effective use of people to achieve organizational and individual goals. It is the way of managing people at work, so that they give their best to the organization‖.
According to Dessler (2008) the policies and practices involved in carrying out the ―peol‖or human resource aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding, and appraising comprises of HRM.
Nature of HRM
HRM is a management function that helps ma members for an organization. HRM is concerned
The following constitute the core of HRM
1. HRM Involves the Application of Management Functions and Principles. The functions and principles are applied to acquiring, developing, maintaining and providing remuneration to employees in organization.
2. Decision Relating to Employees must be Integrated. Decisions on different aspects of employees must be consistent with other human resource (HR) decisions.
3. Decisions Made Influence the Effectiveness of an Organization. Effectiveness of an organization will result in betterment of services to customers in the form of high quality products supplied at reasonable costs.
HRM Functions are not Confined to Business Establishments Only but applicable to non business organizations such as education, health care, recreation and like. HRM refers to a set of programmes, functions and activities designed and carried out in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness.
Features of HRM or characteristics or nature
1. HRM involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling
2. It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource
3. It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives
4. HRM is a mighty disciplinary subject. It includes the study of management psychology communication, economics and sociology.
5. It involves team spirit and team work.
Significance/importance/need of HRM
HRM becomes significant for business organization due to the following reasons. 1. Objective :-
HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc.
2. Facilitates professional growth :-
Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this takes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future.
3. Better relations between union and management :-
Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced.
4. Helps an individual to work in a team/group :-
Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves.
5. Identifies person for the future :-
Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs. Thus one of the advantages of HRM is eparing people for the future.
6. Allocating the jobs to the right person :-
If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover.
7. Improves the economy:-
Effective HR practices lead to higher profits and better performance by companies due to this the company achieves a chance to enter into new business and start new ventured thus industrial development increases and the economy improves.
Scope of HRM
The major HRM activities include HR planning, job analysis, job design, employee hiring, employee and executive remuneration, employee motivation, employee maintenance, industrial relations and prospects of HRM.
The scope of Human Resources Management extends to:
Ø All the decisions, strategies, factors, principles, operations, practices, functions, activities and methods related to the management of people as employees in any type of organization.
Ø All the dimensions related to people in their employment relationships, and all the
dynamics that flow from it.
The scope of HRM is really vast. All major activities n the working life of a worker –from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves it comes under the purview of HRM. American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) conducted fairly an exhaustive study in this field and identified nine broad areas of activities of HRM.
These are given below: Human Resource Planning
Design of the Organization and Job Selection and Staffing
Training and Development Organizational Development Compensation and Benefits Employee Assistance Union/Labour Relations
Personnel Research and Information System
a) Human Resource Planning: The objective of HR Planning is to ensure that the organization has the right types of persons at the right time at the right place. It prepares human resources inventory with a view to assess present and future needs, availability and possible shortages in human resource.
Thereupon, HR Planning forecast demand and supplies and identify sources of selection. HR Planning develops strategies both long-term and short-term, to meet the man-power requirement.
b) Design of Organization and Job:
This is the task of laying down organization structure, authority, relationship and
responsibilities. This will also mean definition of work contents for each position in the organization. This isAnotherdone byimportant―jobdescriptstepi
Job specification identifies the attributes of persons who will be most suitable for each job which is defined by job description.
c) Selection and Staffing:
This is the process of recruitment and selection of staff. This involves matching people and their expectations with which the job specifications and career path available within the organization.
d) Training and Development: This involves an organized attempt to find out training needs of the individuals to meet the knowledge and skill which is needed not only to perform current job but also to fulfil the future needs of the organization.
e) Organizational Development: This is an important aspect w generated in an organization i.e. healthy interpersonal and inter-group relationship within the organization.
f) Compensation and Benefits: This is the area of wages and salaries administration where
wages and compensations are fixed scientifically to meet fairness and equity criteria. In addition labour welfare measures are involved which include benefits and services.
g) Employee Assistance: Each employee is unique in character, personality, expectation and temperament. By and large each one of them faces problems everyday. Some are personal some are official. In their case he or she remains worried. Such worries must be removed to make him or her more productive and happy.
h) Union-Labour Relations: Healthy Industrial and Labour relations are very important for enhancing peace and productivity in an organization. This is one of the areas of HRM.
i) Personnel Research and Information System: Knowledge on behavioral science and industrial psychology throws better insight into the workers expectations, aspirations and behaviour.Advancement of technology of product and production methods have created working environment which are much different from the past. Globalization of economy has increased competition many fold. Science of ergonomics gives better ideas of doing a work more conveniently by an employee. Thus, continuous research in HR areas is an unavoidable requirement. It must also take special care for improving exchange of information through effective communication systems on a continuous basis especially on moral and motivation.
Objectives of HRM
The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of competent and willing workforce to an organization. The specific objectives include the following:
1) Human capital: assisting the organization in obtaining the right number and types of employees to fulfill its strategic and operational goals.
2) Developing organizational climate: helping to create a climate in which employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their skills to the fullest and to employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently.
3) Helping to maintain performance standards and increase productivity through effective job design: providing adequate orientation, training and development; providing performance-related feedback; and ensuring effective two-way communication.
4) Helping to establish and maintain a harmonious employer/employee relationship 5) Helping to create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment
6) Developing programs to meet the economic, psychological, and social needs of the employees and helping the organization to retain the productive employees
7) Ensuring that the organization is in compliance with provincial/territorial and federal laws affecting the workplace (such as human rights, employment equity, occupational health and safety, employment standards, and labour relations legislation). To help the organization to reach its goals
8) To provide organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees 9) To increase the employees satisfaction and self-actualization
10) To develop and maintain the quality of work life
11) To communicate HR policies to all employees.
12)To help maintain ethical polices and behavior.
Objectives of HRM
1) Societal Objectives: seek to ensure that the organization becomes socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands
upon the organization. The failure of the o benefit in ethical ways may lead to restriction.
2) Organizational Objectives: it recognizes the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. It makes sure that HRM is not a standalone department, but rather a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. The HR department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
3) Functional Objectives: is to maintain the department‘s c the organization‘s needs. Human resources demands. The aluedepartment‘sshouldnotbecometoo expensive at the cost of the
organization it serves.
4) Personnel Objectives: it is to assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least as
far as these goals enhance the Personalindividual‘sobjectives of employees must be met if they are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise employee performance and satisfaction may decline giving rise to employee turnover.
Functions of HRM
Human Resources management has an important role to play in equipping organizations to meet the challenges of an expanding and increasingly competitive sector. Increase in staff numbers, contractual diversification and changes in demographic profile which compel the HR managers to reconfigure the role and significance of human resources management. The functions are responsive to current staffing needs, but can be proactive in reshaping organizational objectives. All the functions of HRM are correlated with the core objectives of HRM (Table 1.1). For example personal objectives is sought to be realized through functions like remuneration, assessment etc.
Functions of HRM
Strategic HR Management:
As a part of maintaining organizational competitiveness, strategic planning for HR effectiveness can be increased through the use of HR metrics and HR technology. Human resource planning (HRP) function determine the number and type of employees needed to accomplish organizational goals. HRP includes creating venture teams with a balanced skill-mix, recruiting the right people, and voluntary team assignment. This function analyzes and determines personnel needs in order to create effective innovation teams. The basic HRP strategy is staffing and employee development.
Equal Employment Opportunity: Compliance with equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws and regulations affects all other HR activities.
Staffing: The aim of staffing is to provide a sufficient supply of qualified individuals to fill jobs in an organization. Job analysis, recruitment and selection are the main functions under staffing. Workers job design and job analysis laid the foundation for staffing by identifying what diverse people do in their jobs and how they are affected by them.
Job analysis is the process of describing the nature of a job and specifying the human requirements such as knowledge, skills, and experience needed to perform the job. The end result of job analysis is job description. Job description spells out work duties and activities of employees. Through HR planning, managers anticipate the future supply of and demand for employees and the nature of workforce issues, including the retention of employees. So HRP precedes the actual selection of people for organization.
These factors are used when recruiting applicants for job openings. The selection process is concerned with choosing qualified individuals to fill those jobs.In the selection function, the most qualified applicants are selected for hiring from among the applicants based on the extent to which their abilities and skills are matching with the job.
Talent Management and Development: Beginning with the orientation of new employees, talent management and development includes different types of training. Orientation is the first step towards helping a new employee to adjust himself to the new job and the employer. It is a method to acquaint new employees with particular aspects of their new job, including pay and benefit programmes, working hours and company rules and expectations. Training and Development programs provide useful means of assuring that the employees are capable of performing their jobs at acceptable levels and also more than that. All the organizations provide training for new and in experienced employee. In addition, organization often provide both on the job and off the job training programmes for those employees whose jobs are undergoing change.
Likewise, HR development and succession planning of employees and managers is necessary to prepare for future challenges. Career planning has developed as result of the desire of many employees to grow in their jobs and to advance in their career. Career planning activities
include assessing an individual employee‘s organization. Performance appraisal includes encouraging risk taking, demanding innovation, generating or adopting new tasks, peer evaluation, frequent evaluations, and auditing innovation processes.
This function monitors employee performance to ensure that it is at acceptable levels. This strategy appraises individual and team performance so that there is a link between individual innovativeness and company profitability. Which tasks should be appraised and who should assess
employees‘ performance are also taken into ac
Total Rewards: Compensation in the form of pay, incentives and benefits are the rewards given to the employees for performing organizational work. Compensation management is the method for determining how much employees should be paid for performing certain jobs.
Compensation affects staffing in that people are generally attracted to organizations offering a higher level of pay in exchange for the work performed. To be competitive, employers develop and refine their basic compensation systems and may use variable pay programs such as incentive rewards, promotion from within the team, recognition rewards, balancing team and individual rewards etc.
This function uses rewards to motivate pe productivity, innovation and profitability. Compensation is also related to employee development
in that it provides an important incentive in motivating employees to higher levels of job performance to higher paying jobs in the organization.
Benefits are another form of compensation to employees other than direct pay for the work performed. Benefits include both legally re discretion.Benefits are primarily related to the area of employee maintenance as they provide for
many basic employee needs.
Risk Management and Worker Protection: HRM addresses various workplace risks to
ensure protection of workers by meeting legal requirements and being more responsive to concerns for workplace health and safety along with disaster and recovery planning.
Employee and Labor Relations: The relationship between managers and their employees must be handled legally and effectively. Employer and employee rights must be addressed. It is important to develop, communicate, and update HR policies and procedures so that managers and employees alike know what is expected. In some organizations, union/management relations must be addressed as well.
The term labour relation refers to the interaction with employees who are represented by a trade union. Unions are organization of employees who join together to obtain more voice in decisions affecting wages, benefits, working conditions and other aspects of employment. With regard to labour relations the major function of HR personnel includes negotiating with the unions regarding wages, service conditions and resolving disputes and grievances.