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Chapter: Civil Surveying - Control Surveying

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Horizontal Controls Surveying & Its Methods

The horizontal control consists of reference marks of known plan position, from which salient points of designed structures may be set out.

HORIZONTAL CONTROLS & ITS METHODS

 

The horizontal control consists of reference marks of known plan position, from which salient points of designed structures may be set out. For large structures primary and secondary control points are used. The primary control points are triangulation stations. The secondary control points are reference to the primary control stations.

 

Reference Grid

 

Reference grids are used for accurate setting out of works of large magnitude. The following types of reference grids are used:

 

1.     Survey Grid

 

2. Site Grid

 

3. tructural Grid

 

4. Secondary Grid

 

Survey grid is one which is drawn on a survey plan, from the original traverse. Original traverse stations form the control points of the grid. The site grid used by the designer is the one with the help of which actual setting out is done. As far as possible the site grid should be actually the survey grid. All the design points are related in terms of site grid coordinates. The structural grid is used when the structural components of the building are large in numbers and are so positioned that these components cannot be set out from the site grid with sufficient accuracy. The structural grid is set out from the site grid points. The secondary grid is established inside the structure, to establish internal details of the building, which are otherwise not visible directly from the structural grid.


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