Geography - Glossary | 10th Social Science : Geography : Glossary

Chapter: 10th Social Science : Geography : Glossary


Social Science : Geography : Glossary



Back waters: The part of a river which are stagnant and do not reach the sea as they are pushed by the current.


Distributary: A branch or outlet which leaves a main river and does not rejoin it, carrying its water to the sea or a lake.


Doab: A land between the two converging rivers.


Estuary: Mouth of a river where it enters the sea through a single channel with a hollow.


Perennial Rivers: The rivers which flow throughout the year and have permanent source of water.


Pass: A narrow gap through the mountains providing a route or passage way.


Peninsula: The land area covered with ocean on three sides.


Subcontinent: A large area of a continent that stands distinct from the rest of the continent and possesses almost all the characteristics of a continent.


Standard Time: The local time of central meridian of ones country.


Tributary: A river or stream which contributes its water to main river.


Climate: The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.


Meteorology: The branch of science concerned with the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere, especially as a means of forecasting the weather.


Season: Each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hou.


Weather: The state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.


Wildlife: Wild animals collectively; the native fauna (and sometimes flora) of a region.


Soil: Soil is the uppermost layer of the land surface composed of minerals, organic matter, living organisms and water


Khadar: Newer alluvium soil found in valley flooded almost every year


Bhangar: Older alluvium soil found in30 mts above flood level


Soil erosion: Removal of top soil


Soil conservation: Prevention of soil from erosion and protecting its fertility.


Irrigation: Watering of plants through artificial means.


Multipurpose projects: Construction of dams across rivers aimed at many purposes


Agriculture: It is the process of producing food, feed, fibre and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated plants


Biogas: The production of methane and carbon- di- oxide from plants and animal wastes.


Fossil fuel: Any naturally occurring carbon or hydrocarbon coal, oil and natural gas.


Ore: It is a deposit in the earth crust with one or more value minerals


Solar power: Heat radiation from the sun converted into electricity.


Thermal power station: An electricity generating plants which burns coal or oil.


Barter: A direct exchange of goods between any two parties.No money is involved in the trade.


Foreign exchange: The mechanism or process by which payments between any two places operating under different national currency systems are effected without passing of actual money or gold, etc.


Harbour: An extensive stretch of deep water near the seashore where vessels can anchor securely. It is used for exports and imports of goods.


Port: The commercial part of a harbour with the facility of loading and unloading of goods and space for the storage of cargo.


Bay: A broad inlet of the sea where the land curves inwards


Beach: A pebbly or sandy shore, especially by the sea between high- and low-water marks


Biogas: The production of methane and carbon- di- oxide from plants and animal wastes


Commercial crops: Crops which are cultivated to be sold to gain profit from sale.


Cyclone: A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong centre of low atmospheric pressure.


Dams: A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity, supply water and other uses.


Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial tract formed at the mouth of a river.


Density of population: The average number of inhabitants living per sq km area


Drought: It is a natural disaster of below average precipitation in a given region resulting water shortage.


Drowning: death caused by being underwater and not being able to breath.


Endemism: The ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation


Exports: Goods dispatched from one country to another.


Flood: A large amount of water that has spread from a river


Imports: Goods bought into a country from another country.


Land slide: sudden fall of mass of the rocks etc down side of the mountain


Literates: The people with the ability to read and write.


Leaching: It is a process in rainy seasons which all the soluble minerals are washed away by runoff water so the soil is infertile


Latitude: The imaginary parallel lines which run east to west on the globe.


Longitude: The imaginary vertical lines which run north to south on the globe.


Mangroves: Salt tolerant evergreen forest ecosystem found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical coastal and/or inter-tidal regions.


Manchester: An industrial city and metropolitan district in north-western England/items for the home made of cotton, linen, etc., such as sheets, pillowcases, or tablecloths.


Meteorology: The science of weather.


Mixed farming: It is a type of farming which involves both the growing of crops and the raising of livestock simultaneously in a land holding.


Monsoon: Season


Natural resources: Materials or substances occur in nature and are used for economic gain


Open Forest: Lands with forest cover having a canopy density between 10 to 40 percent.


Plantation agriculture: Well organized and managed farming with a single crop on a large scale. It is a capital intensive farming. Tea, coffee and rubber are the major plantation crops.


Plateau: An extensive elevated area of relatively a flat land.


Population: All the people living in a particular country, area, or place


Population census: Official enumeration of population along with economic and social attributes of a region at a specified interval.


Protected Forest(PF): An area notified under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act or other State Forest Acts, having limited degree of protection. In protected forest all activities are permitted unless prohibited.


Regions: An area, especially part of a country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries.


Reserved Forest (RF): An area constituted under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act or other State Forest Acts, having full degree of protection. In Reserved forests all activities are prohibited unless permitted.


Reservoirs: A large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply.


Sedimentary rock: A rock which has been formed by the consolidation of sediments.


Sex ratio: The number of females per 1000 males.


Stampede: a situation in which a large number of animals or people running in the same direction in an uncontrolled way causing injuries and deaths


Strait: A narrow passage of water connecting two seas or two other large areas of water.


Subsistence intenensive farming: It is a type of farming in which crops grown are consumed by the family with little surplus to sell.


Unclassed Forest: An area recorded as forest but not included in reserved or protected forest category.


UNESCO World Heritage Site: Representing the main ecosystem of the planet in which genetic resisources would be protected, and where research on the ecosystem as well as monitoring and training work could be carried.

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