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Back waters: The part of a river which are stagnant and do not reach the sea as they are pushed by the current.
Distributary: A branch or outlet which leaves a main river and does not rejoin it, carrying its water to the sea or a lake.
Doab: A land between the two converging rivers.
Estuary: Mouth of a river where it enters the sea through a single channel with a hollow.
Perennial Rivers: The rivers which flow throughout the year and have permanent source of water.
Pass: A narrow gap through the mountains providing a route or passage way.
Peninsula: The land area covered with ocean on three sides.
Subcontinent: A large area of a continent that stands distinct from the rest of the continent and possesses almost all the characteristics of a continent.
Standard Time: The local time of central meridian of ones country.
Tributary: A river or stream which contributes its water to main river.
Climate: The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
Meteorology: The branch of science concerned with the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere, especially as a means of forecasting the weather.
Season: Each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hou.
Weather: The state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Wildlife: Wild animals collectively; the native fauna (and sometimes flora) of a region.
Soil: Soil is the uppermost layer of the land surface composed of minerals, organic matter, living organisms and water
Khadar: Newer alluvium soil found in valley flooded almost every year
Bhangar: Older alluvium soil found in30 mts above flood level
Soil erosion: Removal of top soil
Soil conservation: Prevention of soil from erosion and protecting its fertility.
Irrigation: Watering of plants through artificial means.
Multipurpose projects: Construction of dams across rivers aimed at many purposes
Agriculture: It is the process of producing food, feed, fibre and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated plants
Biogas: The production of methane and carbon- di- oxide from plants and animal wastes.
Fossil fuel: Any naturally occurring carbon or hydrocarbon coal, oil and natural gas.
Ore: It is a deposit in the earth crust with one or more value minerals
Solar power: Heat radiation from the sun converted into electricity.
Thermal power station: An electricity generating plants which burns coal or oil.
Barter: A direct exchange of goods between any two parties.No money is involved in the trade.
Foreign exchange: The mechanism or process by which payments between any two places operating under different national currency systems are effected without passing of actual money or gold, etc.
Harbour: An extensive stretch of deep water near the seashore where vessels can anchor securely. It is used for exports and imports of goods.
Port: The commercial part of a harbour with the facility of loading and unloading of goods and space for the storage of cargo.
Bay: A broad inlet of the sea where the land curves inwards
Beach: A pebbly or sandy shore, especially by the sea between high- and low-water marks
Biogas: The production of methane and carbon- di- oxide from plants and animal wastes
Commercial crops: Crops which are cultivated to be sold to gain profit from sale.
Cyclone: A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong centre of low atmospheric pressure.
Dams: A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity, supply water and other uses.
Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial tract formed at the mouth of a river.
Density of population: The average number of inhabitants living per sq km area
Drought: It is a natural disaster of below average precipitation in a given region resulting water shortage.
Drowning: death caused by being underwater and not being able to breath.
Endemism: The ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation
Exports: Goods dispatched from one country to another.
Flood: A large amount of water that has spread from a river
Imports: Goods bought into a country from another country.
Land slide: sudden fall of mass of the rocks etc down side of the mountain
Literates: The people with the ability to read and write.
Leaching: It is a process in rainy seasons which all the soluble minerals are washed away by runoff water so the soil is infertile
Latitude: The imaginary parallel lines which run east to west on the globe.
Longitude: The imaginary vertical lines which run north to south on the globe.
Mangroves: Salt tolerant evergreen forest ecosystem found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical coastal and/or inter-tidal regions.
Manchester: An industrial city and metropolitan district in north-western England/items for the home made of cotton, linen, etc., such as sheets, pillowcases, or tablecloths.
Meteorology: The science of weather.
Mixed farming: It is a type of farming which involves both the growing of crops and the raising of livestock simultaneously in a land holding.
Natural resources: Materials or substances occur in nature and are used for economic gain
Open Forest: Lands with forest cover having a canopy density between 10 to 40 percent.
Plantation agriculture: Well organized and managed farming with a single crop on a large scale. It is a capital intensive farming. Tea, coffee and rubber are the major plantation crops.
Plateau: An extensive elevated area of relatively a flat land.
Population: All the people living in a particular country, area, or place
Population census: Official enumeration of population along with economic and social attributes of a region at a specified interval.
Protected Forest(PF): An area notified under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act or other State Forest Acts, having limited degree of protection. In protected forest all activities are permitted unless prohibited.
Regions: An area, especially part of a country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries.
Reserved Forest (RF): An area constituted under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act or other State Forest Acts, having full degree of protection. In Reserved forests all activities are prohibited unless permitted.
Reservoirs: A large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply.
Sedimentary rock: A rock which has been formed by the consolidation of sediments.
Sex ratio: The number of females per 1000 males.
Stampede: a situation in which a large number of animals or people running in the same direction in an uncontrolled way causing injuries and deaths
Strait: A narrow passage of water connecting two seas or two other large areas of water.
Subsistence intenensive farming: It is a type of farming in which crops grown are consumed by the family with little surplus to sell.
Unclassed Forest: An area recorded as forest but not included in reserved or protected forest category.
UNESCO World Heritage Site: Representing the main ecosystem of the planet in which genetic resisources would be protected, and where research on the ecosystem as well as monitoring and training work could be carried.
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