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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard History autobiography life Higher secondary school College Notes

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Geographical Discoveries : Portugal and Spain

The first great wave of expeditions was launched by Portugal. Its ruler was Henry (1394-1460) generally known as 'the Navigator'. As a result of his efforts, the Madeira and Azores Islands were discovered.

Portugal

The first great wave of expeditions was launched by Portugal. Its ruler was Henry (1394-1460) generally known as 'the Navigator'. As a result of his efforts, the Madeira and Azores Islands were discovered. The main project of Henry the Navigator was the exploration of the West Coast of Africa. His sailors discovered the Cape Verde Islands. Although Henry died in 1460, his zeal provided stimulus to the Portuguese for further explorations. In 1487 Bartholomew Diaz reached the southern tip of Africa and called it 'the Cape of Storms' due to a terrible storm he experienced there. Later it was renamed as 'the Cape of Good Hope' because it provided hope that access to the Indian Ocean was possible. Vasco da Gama  successfully used this route and reached India in 1498. Vasco da Gama's discovery of a new sea-route to India was a most significant event in the history of Europe and Asia.

 

Spain

 

Next to Portugal, Spain began to explore the sea route to the east. Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor, planned to discover a new sea route to the East by traveling westwards.

 

After securing monetary assistance from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, he set sail on August 3, 1492 across the Atlantic. After a long and difficult voyage he reached an island of the Bahamas on Oct 12, 1492. He thought that he had reached the shores of India. Therefore, he called COLOUMBUS the natives of that island Indians. He made three more voyages and explored the islands in the Caribbean Sea and Central America. These islands are even today called as the West Indies.

Later in 1501, Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian navigator, with the support of the king of Spain explored the areas of South America. He came to the conclusion that what Columbus discovered was not India but a 'New World'. Therefore the new continent was named as America. However, Columbus is considered as the discoverer of America.

In 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued a Bull in order to prevent any dispute between Spain and Portugal in exploring new sea routes and new lands.

It is popularly called the Papal Bull (order of Pope). According to it an imaginary line was drawn dividing the globe into east and west. Spain was given the right to possess the lands on the west and Portugal on the east of the Pope's line. Thus, Spain could not use sea route through the Cape of Good Hope to reach the East Indies.

 

Therefore, Spain planned to reach the east by sailing westwards. On August 10, 1519, Ferdinand Magellan had sailed with five Spanish ships - namely, Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria, and Santiago - from the port of Sevilla. The fleet of Magellan crossed an arduous 373-mile long passage on the southern end of South America. This strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. Then he entered an ocean which was calmer than the Atlantic. Therefore, he named it the Pacific Ocean. While crossing the Pacific, the sailors suffered for want of food and drinking-water. At last, on March 6, 1521, they reached the Philippines, where Magellan was killed by the natives. The survivors with the only remaining ship, the Victoria arrived at Sevilla through the Cape of Good Hope on September 9, 1522. It was the first voyage undertaken round the world.

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