A 37-year-old, 65-kg woman with a small bowel obstruction presents to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, lysis of adhesions and possible bowel resection. Her past medical history is unremarkable. Her past surgical history is significant for a cholecystec-tomy 3 years ago under general anesthesia, and a cesarean section 1 year ago under spinal anesthesia. Both procedures were without complication. She has a nasogastric tube in place, which is draining approximately 25 cc/hr of bilious fluid. She was on no medications upon admission. Vital signs are a heart rate of 97 beats per minute, blood pressure of 130/65 mmHg and a respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute. The hematocrit is 39%.