Genetically modified food is synthesized using biotechnological tools. Modern Biotechnology is also called as genetic engineering, genetic modification or transgenic technology. Food bio technology is defined as “Application of technology to modify genes of animals, plants and micro organisms to create new species which have desired production, marketing, or nutrition related properties”. In this technology, Nuclear DNA is modified through insertion of gene of interest (gene encoding desired trait). This modified DNA is called as recombinant DNA. When recombinant DNA expresses, it encodes desired product.
This technology, when implemented enhance food qualities or yield is called as food bio technology
Developments in food technology have contributed greatly to the food supply and have changed our world. Some of these developments are:
· Pharma food : food or nutrient that claims medical or health benefits.
· Anti oxidants: It is capable of stabilizing or deactivating free radical before they attack cells.
· Chemoprevention: It uses one or several compounds to prevent, strip or reverse the development of cancer.
· Designer food : Processed food that are supplemented with food ingredients naturally rich in disease preventing substances.
· Functional food: any modified food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the nutrients it contains.
Genetically modißed organisms (GMOs) can be deßned as “Organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination”. The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also called as “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.