Financial Statement Analysis
The process of reviewing and evaluating a company's financial statements (such as the balance sheet or profit and loss statement), thereby gaining an understanding of the financial health of the company and enabling more effective decision making. Financial statements record financial data; however, this information must be evaluated through financial statement analysis to become more useful to investors, shareholders, managers and other interested parties.
Financial ratio analysis
Financial ratios are very powerful tools to perform some quick analysis of financial statements. There are four main categories of ratios: liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, activity ratios and leverage ratios. These are typically analyzed over time and across competitors in an industry.
Liquidity ratios are used to determine how quickly a company can turn its assets into cash if it experiences financial difficulties or bankruptcy. It essentially is a measure of a company's ability to remain in business. A few common liquidity ratios are the current ratio and the liquidity index. The current ratio is current assets/current liabilities and measures how much liquidity is available to pay for liabilities.
Profitability ratios are ratios that demonstrate how profitable a company is. A few popular profitability ratios are the breakeven point and gross profit ratio. The breakeven point calculates how much cash a company must generate to break even with their start up costs. The gross profit ratio is equal to (revenue - the cost of goods sold)/revenue. This ratio shows a quick snapshot of expected revenue.
Activity ratios are meant to show how well management is managing the company's resources. Two common activity ratios are accounts payable turnover and accounts receivable turnover. These ratios demonstrate how long it takes for a company to pay off its accounts payable and how long it takes for a company to receive payments, respectively.
In the theory of capital structure, internal financing is the name for a firm using its profits as a source of capital for new investment, rather than a) distributing them to firm's owners or other investors and b) obtaining capital elsewhere. It is to be contrasted with external financing which consists of new money from outside of the firm brought in for investment. Internal financing is generally thought to be less expensive for the firm than external financing because the firm does not have to incur transaction costs to obtain it, nor does it have to pay the taxes associated with paying dividends. Many economists debate whether the availability of internal financing is an important determinant of firm investment or not. A related controversy is whether the fact that internal financing is empirically correlated with investment implies firms are credit constrained and therefore depend on internal financing for investment
Long-term liabilities are liabilities with a future benefit over one year, such as notes payable that mature longer than one year.
In accounting, the long-term liabilities are shown on the right wing of the balance-sheet representing the sources of funds, which are generally bounded in form of capital assets.
Examples of long-term liabilities are debentures, mortgage loans and other bank loans. (Note: Not all bank loans are long term as not all are paid over a period greater than a year, an example of this is a bridging loan.)
convention, the portion of long-term liabilities that must be paid in the
coming 12-month period are classified as current liabilities. For example, a
loan for which two payments of $1000 are due, one in the next twelve months and
the other after that date, would be 'split' into two: the first $1000 would be
classified as a current liability, and the second $1000 as a long-term
liability (note this example is simplified, and does not take into account any
interest or discounting effects, which may be required depending on the