Factors responsible for location of Industries
Industrial locations are complex in nature. They are influenced by the availability of many factors. Some of them are: Raw Materials, Land, Water, Labour, Capital, Power, Transport, and Market. The locational factors of industries are grouped into: Geographical factors and Non-Geographical factors.
I. Geographical Factors
1. Raw Material: Bulky goods and weight losing materials cannot be transported for long distances. Therefore, industries like iron and steel and sugar industries are located near the place of availability of iron ore and sugar cane respectively. Steel Plant in Salem is located near Kanjamalai, where iron ore is available. Similarly, Sugar industries are located near the sugarcane growing areas.
2. Power: Power is base and essential to run the entire industry. Power is mostly generated from the conventional sources like coal, mineral oil, and water. So, any one of these sources must be located near the industries to fulfil its power requirement.
3. Labour: Availability of cheap and skilled labour is another important requirement for labour intensive industries (e.g., Tea industry).
4. Transport: It is needed for transporting raw materials to the industries and also for sending the finished products to the market. Availability of easy transportation always influences the location of an industry. So, the junction points of waterways, roadways and railways become active centres of industrial activity.
5. Storage and Warehousing: The finished goods should reach the market at the end of the process of manufacturing. Hence, such finished products should be stored at suitable storage or warehouse till the goods are taken to the market.
6. Topography: The site that is selected for the establishment of an industry must be flat. So, it can be well served by different modes of transport.
7. Climate: Climate of the area selected for an industry is also one of the important factors of location of industries. Extreme climate condition is not suitable for the successful industrial growth. Moreover, there are certain industries which require a specific climate. Example: Cool- humid climate is ideal for cotton textile industry. As Coimbatore and Tiruppur have such type of climate, many cotton textile industries are located in this zone.
8. Water Resources: Availability of water is another important factor that influences the industrial location. Many industries are established near rivers, canals, and lakes for this reason. Iron and steel industries, textile industries and chemical industries require plenty of water, for their proper functioning.
Find out : Find out the reasons for uneven distribution of industries in India.
(i) The distribution of Industries in India is highly uneven.
(ii) This is so partly on account of uneven distribution of the necessary raw materials and power resources.
(iii) And partly due to the concentration of enterprises, financial resources and other necessary condition in large towns.
II. Non-Geographical Factors
1. Capital: Capital or huge investment is needed for the establishment of industries without which no industry can be established.
2. Availability of Loans: In most cases, it is not possible to start an industry with enough capital in hand. So, the investors seek loan to start the industries. Thus, the organizational set up which provides loan and insurance are required.
3. Government Policies/Regulations:
Government policies are another important factor that influences industrial location. The government sets certain restriction in the allocation of land for industries in order to reduce regional disparities, to control excessive pollution and to avoid the excessive clustering of industries in big cities. So, the policies also affect the industrial locations.
Think about Black Board and chalk piece
1. Name the raw materials used for production.
2. Find the places of their production.
3. Name the industrial category in which chalks are made.