I. Choose the correct answer:
1. Which is the oldest structural temple in south India?
a. Shore Temple
c. Kailasanatha Temple
d. Vaikuntha Perumal Temple
[Answer : (a) Shore Temple]
2. In which year were the Mamallapuram monuments and temples notified as a UNESCO world Heritage site?
[Answer: (d) 1984]
3. What was the special feature of the architecture of early Chola period?
[Answer: (b) vimanas]
4. Where is the Azhakiya Nambi Temple situated?
[Answer : (a) Tirukkurungudi]
5. Who built the Vaikuntha Perumal Temple?
d. Rajaraja II
[Answer : () Nandivarman II]
II. Fill in the Blanks:
1. Mandagapattu temple was the first rock-cut cave temple built by the Pallava king Mahendravarman.
2. The early Chola architecture followed the style of Sembian Mahadevi.
3. The most celebrated mandapam in Madurai Meenakshiamman temple is the Pudumandapam.
4. Later Chola period was known for beautiful gopurams.
5. Vijayanagar period’s unique feature is the mandapam.
III Match the following:
1. Seven Pagodas – Madurai
2. Rathi mandapam – Darasuram
3. Iravatheswara temple – Tirukkurungudi
4. Adinatha Temple – Shore temple
5. Pudumandapam – Azhwar Tirunagari
1. Seven Pagodas - Shore temple
2. Rathi mandapam - Tirukkurungudi
3. Iravatheswara temple - Darasuram
4. Adinatha Temple - Azhwar Tirunagari
5. Pudumandapam - Madurai
IV. Find out the wrong pair/pairs:
1. Krishnapuram Temple – Tirunelveli
2. Kudalazhagar Temple – Azhwar Tirunagari
3. Sethupathis – Feudatories of Madurai Nayaks
4. Jalagandeshwara temple – Vellore
[Answer : (2) Kudalazhagar Temple - Azhwar Tirunagari]
2. Assertion (A): The predominance of corridors of Rameswaram Temple is striking.
Reason (R): The Temple has the largest set of corridors in the world.
a. R is not the correct explanation of A
b. R is the correct explanation of A
c. A is correct but R is wrong
d. Both A and R are wrong
[Answer : (b) R is the correct explanation of A]
3. Find out the odd one out:
Srivilliputhur, Azhaharkoil, Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Tiruvannamalai.
4. Name the epoch of the following:
a. A.D. 600 to 850 – The Pallava Epoch
b. A.D. 850 to 1100 – Early Chola Epoch
c. A.D. 1100 to 1350 – Later Chola Epoch
d. A.D. 1350 to 1600 – Vijayanagara / Nayak Epoch
5. Find out the correct statement/s:
1. The Arjuna’s Penance is carved out of a granite boulder.
2. Meenakshi Amman temple in Madurai represents Pallava’s architectural style.
3. The cave temple at Pillayarpatti is a contribution of Later Pandyas.
4. The Sethupathis as feudatories of Madurai Nayaks contributed to Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple.
[Answer : (1) The Arjuna’s Penance is carved out of a granite boulder,
(3) The cave temple at Pillayarpatti is a contribution of Later Pandyas]
V. State true or false:
1. Rajasimha built the Kanchi Kailasanatha temple. [Answer : True]
2. Early Pandyas were the contemporaries of Later Cholas. [Answer : False]
3. Rock-cut and structural temples are significant parts of the Pandya architecture [Answer : True]
4. Brihadeeshwara temple was built by Rajendra Chola. [Answer : True]
5. Vijayanagar and Nayak paintings are seen at temple at Dadapuram. [Answer : False]
VI. Give short answers:
1. Write a note on Pancha Pandava Rathas.
Answer: (i) The Tamil Dravida tradition is exemplified by rock-cut monuments such as Pancha Pandava Rathas, namely Draupadi ratha, Dharmaraja ratha, Bheema ratha, Arjuna ratha and Nagula- Sahadeva ratha
(ii) The outer walls of the rathas, especially of Arjuna, Bhima and Dharmaraja, decorated with niches and motifs.
(iii) The niches have the sculptures of gods, goddesses, monarchs and scenes from mythology.
2. Throw light on the paintings of Sittanavasal.
Answer: (i) Caves at Sittanavasal, have outstanding early Pandya paintings.
(ii) Sittanavasal was a residential cave of the Jain monks. They painted the walls with fresco painting.
(iii) The lotus pond is notable for its excellent execution of colours and exposition of the scene.
(iv) The image of lotus flowers, leaves spread all over the pond, animals, elephants, buffalos, swans and a man who placks the flowers look brilliant.
3. Point out the special features of Thanjavur Big temple.
Answer: (i) At the time the Big Temple of Thanjavur was constructed, it was a huge temple complex.
(ii) The 216 feet vimana (structure over the garbhagriha) is notable as it is one among the tallest man-made shikaras of the world.
(iii) Due to its massive height, the shikara is called the Dakshina Meru.
(iv) The huge bull statue (Nandi measures about 16 feet long and 13 feet height and is carved out of a single rock.
4. Highlight the striking features of Rameswaram Temple
(i) In the temple of Rameswaram, the predominance of corridors is striking.
(ii) This temple has the longest set of corridors in the world. The temple has three sets of corridors.
(iii) The outer set of the temples corridors has a height of almost 7 metres and stretches for about 120 metres in both the eastern and western directions.
(iv) The outer corridor is also remarkable for the number of pillars that support it, which is over 1200 in number.
(v) Moreover, many of these pillars are decorated by ornate carvings.
VII. Answer the following in detail
1. The Pallava epoch witnessed a transition from rock-cut to free–standing temples – Explain
Answer: Pallava Epoch:
(i) The Pallava epoch witnessed a transition from rock-cut to free-standing temples.
(ii) Rock-cut temples were initially built by carving a rock to the required design and then rocks were cut to build temples.
(iii) The Pallava king Mahendravarman was a pioneer in rock-cut architecture. Mandagapattu temple was the first rock-cut temple built by him.
(iv) The rock-cut cave structure has two pillars in the front that hold it.
(v) This cave architecture reached its decadent phase after A.D.700 and gave way to the large structural temples probably because the structural temples provided a wider scope to the sculptor to use his skill.
(vi) The Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram, also called the Seven Pagodas, was built by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman II.
(vii) The structural temples were built using blocks of rock instead of a whole block as earlier.
(viii) Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram) is built of cut stones rather than carved out of caves.
.2. Discuss how the architecture of Vijayanagara and Nayak period was different from the one of Pallavas and Later Cholas.
Vijayanagara and Nayak Period of architecture
1. The main features of Vijayanagar and Nayak architecture are decorated mandapas, ornamental pillars, life- size images, gopuras, prakaras, music pillars, floral works and stone windows during the 15th to 17th centuries.
2. Tanks are attached to the temples. Gateways to temple are constructed from four directions with massive Gopurams.
Pallavas and Later cholas period of architecture
1. The Pallava epoch withnessed a transition from rock-cut to free standing temples. The Shore temple at Mahabalipuram was built by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman II.
2. The maturity attained by later chola architecture is reflected in the two magnificent temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Dharasuram is a later Chola period temple rich in architectural splendour, dedicated to Iravatheswara.
1. Dravidian architecture is of indigenous origin - Explain.
Answer: (i) Dravidian architecture is of indigenous origin. It advanced over time by a process of evolution. The earliest examples of the Tamil Dravidian architectural tradition were the 7th century rock-cut shrines at Mahabalipuram.
(ii) The absence of monuments in south India prior to the 7th century is attributed by scholar to temples ought to have been built in wood, which were eventually destroyed by forces of nature.
(iii) It consists primarily of Hindu temples where the main feature is the high gopura, large temples etc.
(iv) Mentioned as one of the three styles of temple building in the book. Vastu Shastra the majority of the structures are located in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telungana, Kerala, Tamil Nadu & Karnatada.
(v) The Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas, Pallavas Kakatiyas, Kadambas, Chalukyas and the vijayanagar kings contributed to this architecture.
2. Temple art was at its best during the Nayak Period - Elucidate.
Answer: (i) The practice of fitting the niches with sculptures continued during the Nayak period.
(ii) There was an increased use of major sculpted figures (relief sculpture) as found at the Alakiya Nambi temple at Tirukkurungudi (Tirunelveli district) and the Gopalakrishna temple in the Ranganatha temple complex at Srirangam.
(iii) The southern festival mandapam of Adinatha temple at Azhwar Tirunagari and the porch of the Nellaiyappar temple at Tirunelveli are other notable examples.
Visiting temples built during the times of Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas and Nayak rulers and see the differences in the structural and sculptural designs of each epoch.