Evolution & History of Company
Law in India
The earliest business associations in England were
the "Merchant Guilds". Some of the merchant Associations or guilds
who have regulated the companies.
(i) A Royal Charter established the East India
Company in the year 1600.
(ii) In England the Joint Stock Companies Act was
passed for the first time in 1844.
(iii) In the year 1850, taking the English Joint
Stock Companies Act 1844 as a base, a provision was made for registration of
joint stock companies in India.
(iv) The Joint Stock Companies Act was passed in
India by introducing the concept of limited liability in the year 1857.
(v) In 1913, the Indian Companies Act of 1913 was
passed. The Act introduce the institution of private companies in the corporate
sector in India. After Independence. Based on the recommendation of the
Shri.H.C.Baba committee in 1950 and the provisions of the English Companies Act
1948, the Companies Act 1956 was introduced in the parliament.
The Companies Act 1956 came into force on 1st
April, 1956. The main objectives of the Company Law 1956 are:
(i) To sustain trust and faith of Shareholders
(ii) To protect and preserve the rights of Share
(iii) To have drastic control over all the
activities of company
(iv) To make regulation of an effective Annual
(v) The investment of general public should be used
for the development of society or social welfare activities.
The Companies Act 1956 has been amended from time
to time. From 2006 to 2009 some important Changes was made.
(i) The Company Law Board (CLB) has been abolished
and National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is formed.
(ii) The rehabilitation of sick companies will be
undertaken by the NCLT and not by the Board for Industrial & Financial
(iii) Earlier the BIFR was entrusted with the
rehabilitation of sick companies as the matter came under the jurisdiction of
the Sick Industrial Companies Act 1985 (SICA) but now the Sick Industrial
Companies Repeal Act 2003 has replaced SICA and the work of revival and
rehabilitation has been entrusted to NCLT.
Again the Companies Act has been amended in the
year 2013 and has introduced several new concepts and definitions.