Doctrine of Lapse
Lord Dalhousie was one of the chief architects of the British Empire in India. He was an imperialist. He adopted a new policy known as Doctrine of Lapse to extend British Empire. He made use of this precedent and declared in 1848 that if the native rulers adopted children without the prior permission of the Company, only the personal properties of the rulers would go to the adopted sons and the kingdoms would go to the British paramount power. This principle was called the Doctrine of Lapse. It was bitterly opposed by the Indians and it was one of the root causes for the great revolt of 1857.
By applying the Doctrine of Lapse policy, Dalhousie annexed Satara in 1848, Jaipur and Sambalpur in1849, Baghat in 1850, Udaipur in 1852, Jhansi in1853 and Nagpur in 1854.
Factors for the success of the British
* greater naval power.
* development of textile.
* scientific division of labour.
* economic prosperity and skilful diplomacy of the British.
* feelings of insecurity among the Indian merchants.
* the inequality and ignorance of the Indian kings.