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The Muslim invasions into India had ultimately resulted in the establishment of Delhi Sultanate which existed from A.D. 1206 to 1526. Five different dynasties - the Slave, Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyids and Lodis - ruled under the Delhi Sultanate. Not only they extended their rule over North India, but also they penetrated into the Deccan and South India. Their rule in India resulted in far-reaching changes in society, administration and cultural life.
Before his departure from India, Timur appointed Khizr Khan as governor of Multan. He captured Delhi and founded the Sayyid dynasty in 1414. He tried to consolidate the Delhi Sultanate but in vain. He died in 1421 and was succeeded by his son, Mubarak Shah. Muhammad Shah who succeeded him was always busy against conspirators and gradually lost control over his nobles. Buhlul Khan Lodi dominated everything. Muhammad Shah died in 1445 and was succeeded by his son Alam Shah (1445-1451) the weakest of the Sayyid princes. He handed over the throne to Buhlul Lodi and retired to Badaun.
The Lodis, who succeeded Sayyids, were Afghans. Buhlul Lodi was the first Afghan ruler while his predecessors were all Turks. He died in 1489 and was succeeded by his son, Sikandar Lodi.
Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517) was the greatest of the three Lodi sovereigns. He brought the whole of Bihar under his control, many Rajput chiefs were defeated. He attacked Bengal and forced its ruler to conclude a treaty with him, and extended his empire from the Punjab to Bihar. He was a good administrator. Roads were laid and many irrigational facilities were provided for the benefit of the peasantry. Despite certain laudable qualities, he was a bigot. He destroyed many Hindu temples and imposed many restrictions on the Hindus. Yet, he was one of the great Lodi sultans who made the sultanate strong and powerful.
Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by his eldest son Ibrahim Lodi who was arrogant. He insulted his nobles openly in court and humiliated them. Those nobles who revolted were put to death. His own uncle, Alauddin revolted. Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of the Punjab was insulted and disaffection between king and courtier became very common. Greatly displeased by the arrogance of Ibrahim, Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India. Babur marched against Delhi and defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat (1526). The Afghan kingdom lasted for only seventy-five years.
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