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Components of CIM

Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together The heart of computer integrated manufacturing is CAD/CAM.




Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together The heart of computer integrated manufacturing is CAD/CAM. Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems are essential to reducing cycle times in the organization. CAD/CAM is a high technology integrating tool between design and manufacturing. CAD techniques make use of group technology to create similar geometries for quick retrieval.


CAD/CAM integrated systems provide design/drafting, planning and scheduling, and fabrication capabilities. CAD provides the electronic part images, and CAM provides the facility for tool path cutters to take on the raw piece.


CIM Concept Vs CIM Technology


·        CIM  is  both  a  concept  and  a  technology.

·   For  top  management,  CIM  is  a  concept,  a blueprint for success.


·        For middle  managers  and  line managers, CIM is  a  technology


Concept or Technology


“Some people view CIM as a concept, while others merely as a technology. It is actually both. A good analogy of CIM is man, for what we mean by the word man


presupposes both the mind and the body. Similarly, CIM represents both the concept and the technology. The concept leads to the technology which, in turn, broadens the concept.”


The meaning and origin of CIM


The CIM will be used to mean the integration of business, engineering, manufacturing and management information that spans company functions from marketing to product distribution


CIM Definition;


CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communication coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency.


Computer integrated manufacturing is defined as the effective use of computers to design the products, plan the production ,control the operations and perform the various business related functions needed in a manufacturing firm.


Objective of CIM;


·        The main aim of CIM is to use the advanced information processing technology into all areas of manufacturing industry in order


·        To make the total process more productive and efficient;

·        increase product reliability;


·        Decrease the cost of production and maintenance relating to the manufacturing system as well as to the product; and


·        Reduce the number of hazardous jobs and


Subsystems in computer-integrated manufacturing


A computer-integrated manufacturing system is not the same as a "lights-out" factory, which would run completely independent of human intervention, although it is a big step in that direction. Part of the system involves flexible manufacturing, where the factory can be quickly modified to produce different products, or where the volume of products can be changed quickly with the aid of computers. Some or all of the following subsystems may be found in a CIM operation:




CIM system Hardware & Software;


·        CIM Hardware consists of manufacturing equipments and Computer related hard ware with the office equipment.


·        CIM Software consists of computer programs to carry out the various functions and transfer the data from various areas of the industry.


Elements of CIM hardware;


Manufacturing equipment such as CNC machines, robots, DNC / FMS systems, work holding and tool handling devices, Storage devices, sensors, shop floor data collection devices, inspection machine etc.


Computers ,Controllers, CAD /CAM systems, workstations, data entry terminals, bar code readers, printers ,plotters, modems, cables, connectors etc.


Elements of CIM software;


·        MIS- management information system

·        Sales, marketing, finance


·        Data base management

·        Modeling and design

·        Analysis, simulation, communications

·        Monitoring, production control

·        Manufacturing area control, job tracking

·        Inventory control


·        Shop floor data collection,


·        Order entry, materials handling, Device drivers,

·        Process planning, manufacturing facilities

·        Work flow automation,

·        Business process engineering, Network management,



Automation may be defined as the process of having machines follow a predetermined sequence of operations with little or no human labor, using specialized equipment and devices that perform and control manufacturing processes.


‘Islands of automation;


The individually automated workstations or processes are called islands of automation. In other words the term ‘islands of automation’ represents the various


technologies that facilitate manufacturing automation in isolation, without having integrated with other manufacturing technologies.


Major elements of CIM systems;


·        Marketing,

·        Product design,

·        Planning,


·        Purchase,

·        Manufacturing engineering,

·        Factory automation hardware,

·        warehousing, finance, and

·        nformation management



CIM Wheel Components:

Distinct components of CIM wheel


·        Manufacturing / Human resource management

·        Marketing

·        Strategic planning

·        Finance

·        Product and process design and planning

·        Manufacturing planning and control


·        Factory automation



Computer communication in CIM;


·     Communication in the nervous systems of CIM and this is an integral part of CIM.


·     The development in communication / network engineering have made implement of CIM easier that before.


Various needs of communication;

·        The information need for manufacturing in a company requires as follows.


·        Person-to-person, computer-to-computer, machine-to-machine, person to computer or computer to person, person to machine or machine to person, computer to machine or machine to computer


Fundamental needs of computer communications;


·        Data: entities that convey meaning

·        Information: the content or interpretation of data

·        Signals: electric or electromagnetic encoding of data


·        Signaling: the act of propagating the signal along a medium

·        Transmission: propagating of data by processing of signals


Data Transmission Methods.


·        Serious & Parallel Communications.

·        Synchronous & Asynchronous methods.


·        Simplex & Duplex methods.



Communication Networks;


A communication network is the backbone of an enterprise integration. Networks help to unify a company by linking together all the computerized devices irrespective of their physical location.


Through networks the whole enterprise can be integrated, including suppliers and customers. For example, sales and marketing can send customer requirements for new products to design engineering.


A CAD generated bill of materials can then be transferred to “material requirements planning(MRP)” systems. Product design information can be transmitted to manufacturing

for use in process planning.


There are wo  main types of communication networks:


1) Telecommunication Networks;

2) Computer communication Networks.


Telecommunication network is mainly used for voice communication.Computer communication network is a system of interconnected computers and other devices capable exchanging information.


1.Types of Computer networks;


The computer networks can be classified into four categories depending upon the physical separations of the communication devices.


·        Miniature - <50m

·        Small - <500m

·        Medium - <1km


·        Large - >1km  - WAN & LAN.


Local Area Network;


Local Area Network is intended to serve a number of users who are physically located close together.

Wide Area Network;


Wide Area Network more like to telephone network, tying different people in different buildings, cities or even countries.


Network Topologies.


There are several commonly used network topology or ways of routing the interconnections. It classified as Star, Ring, Bus topologies.



Seven Layers of OSI model;




The protocol layers are;


§  The physical layer


§  The data link layer


§  The network layer


§  The transport layer


§  The session layer


§  The presentation layer


§  The application layer




Components of LAN;



The various components of LAN are listed below;


·        Computers,

·        Network interface card,

·        Network cable,


·        Network server,

·        Central mass storage.



Network Topologies;

§  Star topology


§  Ring topology


§  Bus topology


§ Tree topology



There are several commonly used network topology or ways of routing the interconnections. It classified as Star, Ring, Bus topologies.


Star network communications


The star network consists of a central control station to which each of the individual devices or user stations are connected. To send messages from one workstation to the other is through the central station.


Ring network communication


In ring network communication the individual stations are connected in a continuous ring .Each station has a neighboring station on either side. To communicate from one station to other, the message must be relayed from station to station until it finally arrives at its designated destination station.


Bus network communication


The bus network consists of a single main transmission line to which the individual devices are attached. Any device or station can communicate with any other device in the network by sending its message through the bus with the address of the desired recipient.





·        Computer-aided design (CAD)


·        Computer-aided engineering (CAE)


·        Computer-aided industrial design (CAID)


·        Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)


·        Computer-aided rule definition (CARD)


·        Computer-aided rule execution (CARE)


·        Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)


·        Computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS)


·        Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)


·        Component information system (CIS)


·        Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)


·        Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV)


·        Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP)


·        Flexible manufacturing module (FMM)


·        Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC)


·        Flexible manufacturing group (FMG)


·        Flexible fabrication-machining-assembly system (FFMAS)


·        Shop Floor Control (SFC).


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