1 Movement of collection crew
In cultures such as India, Bangladesh, etc., solid waste collection is assigned to the lowest social group. More often, the collection crew member accepts the job as a temporary position or stopgap arrangement, while looking for other jobs that are considered more respectable.
Apart from this cultural problem, the attitude of some SWM authorities affects
collection operation. For example, some authorities still think that the collection of solid waste is mechanical, and therefore, the collection crew does not need any training to acquire special kills. As a result, when a new waste collector starts working, he or she is sent to the field without firm instruction concerning his or her duties, responsibilities and required skills. For an effective collection operation, the collection team must properly be trained. The collection crew and the driver of the collection vehicle must, for example, work as a team, and this is important to maintain the team morale and a sense of social responsibility among these workers.
The difference may be one or two minutes per collection stop, but it matters with the number of stops the crew will take in a working shift. Multiplying the minutes by the total number of crew working and labour cost depicts the amount of labour hours lost in terms of
Generally, familiarity of the crew with the collection area improves efficiency. For example, the driver becomes familiar with the traffic jams, potholes and other obstructions that he or she must avoid. The crew is aware of the location of the containers and the vehicle stops. It is, therefore, important to assign each crew specific areas of responsibility. Working together also establishes an understanding of the strong and weak points of the team members and efficient work sequences. The collection operation must also observe a strict time schedule. Testing of new routes, new gadgets and vehicles is best carried out first in the laboratory and later in a pilot area. Testing of a new sequence using the whole service area could result in disorder and breakdown of the solid waste collection system. Studies show that it takes two hours to recover for every hour of a failed system.
2 Collection vehicle routing
Efficient routing and re-routing of solid waste collection vehicles can help decrease costs by reducing the labour expended for collection. Routing procedures usually consist of the following two separate components:
(i) Macro-routing: Macro-routing, also referred to as route-balancing, consists of dividing the total collection area into routes, sized in such a way as to represent a day's collection for each crew. The size of each route depends on the amount of waste collected per stop, distance between stops, loading time and traffic conditions. Barriers, such as railroad embankments, rivers and roads with heavy competing traffic, can be used to divide route territories. As much as possible, the size and shape of route areas should be balanced within the limits imposed by such barriers.
(ii) Micro-routing: Using the results of the macro-routing analysis, micro- routing can define the specific path that each crew and collection vehicle will take each collection day. Results of micro-routing analyses can then be used to readjust macro- routing decisions. Micro-routing analyses should also include input and review from experienced collection drivers.
Collection Vehicle Route