Causes for the Failure of League of Nations
failed in its main object of maintaining peace in the world. In spite of its
efforts for two decades, the whole world was involved in war again in 1939. There
are many causes for its failure.
powers like USA and USSR were not members of the League of Nations. This was a
unfortunate that the Covenant of the League of Nations was made a part and
parcel of the peace settlement. It would have been better if it had been kept
separate. There were many states which considered the Treaty of Versailles as a
treaty of revenge and were not prepared to ratify the same. By not ratifying
the treaty, they were refused to be members the League. The absence of great
powers [USA and USSR] in the international organisation weakened the League.
Japan, Germany and Italy had left the League.
also a feeling among the nations that the League of Nations was fully dominated
by the victorious countries of World War I especially of France and England.
The result was that the other states began to doubt about the working of the
League of Nations.
countries like Germany were humiliated by the victorious countries. Germany was
compelled to pay war reparations when it was suffering from economic
difficulties. Hence there were no chances of peace.
World War I, in Europe there came situations for the rise of dictatorships in
Italy, Japan and Germany. Japan in the Far East conquered Manchuria. The League
was not also in a position to condemn the action of Japan. Japan was also
prepared to give up the membership of the League.
in Italy there was Fascist Dictatorship. This had preached the people of Italy
narrow nationalism. Italy captured Abyssinia. When the League questioned the
conquest of Italy on Abyssinia, it left the League.
too was not prepared to accept the commitments under the Treaty of Versailles.
In Germany too there was Nazi dictatorship. Hitler preached pseudo patriotism.
He also spoke about the superiority of German race over other races. He wanted
to expand Germany's sway over Austria and Poland. He made conquests over these
countries. Defying the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles he increased the
armaments. When this was questioned in the League, Germany left the League.
nations lost their faith on the working of the League. They felt that the
League of Nations had no power to control the aggressive activities of the big
of forcing Germany to pay the war reparation at the time of its economic crisis
had disastrous effects on the politics of the country. This contributed to the
downfall of the Weimar Republic. This led to the rise of Hitler in Germany and
the latter was responsible for the failure of the League.
of the League of Nations on the ruins of the First World War was welcomed.
However, the member states of the League did not cooperate. As a result the
League failed in its mission. Thus, the Second World War broke out. Finally,
UNO was established on the disintegration of the League.