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Chapter: 10th Social Science : History : Chapter 8 : Nationalism: Gandhian Phase

Answer in detail

Social Science : History : Nationalism: Gandhian Phase : Book Back Important Questions, Answers, Solutions: VI. Answer in detail VII. Activity

VI. Answer in detail

 

1. Examine the factors that led to the transformation of Gandhi into a mass leader.

• After the insult at the train, Gandhi called a meeting of the Indians in Transvaal and forced them to form an association to redress their grievances.

• Gandhi practised Satyagraha in South Africa.

• In India Gandhi led the Champaran Satyagraha and succeeded in the abolition of tinkathia system and put an end to the oppression of the peasants by the indigo planters.

• By his intervention in Ahmedabad mill strike and the Kheda Satyagraha Gandhi became a leader of mass struggle.

• As a mass leader Gandhi called for a nation-wide Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act.

• When Gandhi launched the salt satyagraha hundreds of followers followed him. This shows that he was a mass leader.

• In 1931, Gandhi revived the Civil disobedience movement. Thousands of people were arrested along with Gandhi.

• Gandhi proved himself to be a mass leader in his campaign against untouchalility.

• As a mass leader Gandhi was supported by the people in the Quit India Movement.

• All these above incidents led Gandhi into a mass leader.


2. Critically examine the Civil Disobedience Movement as the typical example of Gandhian movement.

• In 1929, the Congress session was held in Lahore under the leadership of Nehru. It was decided to launch a Civil disobedience movement. A pledge was taken to attain Poorna swaraj through Civil disobedience.

• The Indian National Congress authorized Gandhi to launch the movement.

• One of the demands presented to Viceroy Lord Irwin was the abolition of salt tax.

• The inclusion of abolition of salt tax was a brilliant tactical decision.

• On March 12, 1930 Gandhi set out from Sabarmathi Ashram towards Dandi.

• When the salt march was on progress hundreds of people joined the march.

• Though it was a mass movement no incident of violence was reported anywhere,

• Gandhi reached Dandi on 5th April 1930 and picked a lump of salt breaking the salt law

 

3. Discuss the reasons behind the partition of India.

Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905 became the first factor in the partition of India.

• The Muslims felt the need for a separate organization to champion the cause of the Muslims. So in 1906 the Muslim League was formed to protect the interest of the Muslims.

• The Minto Marley Reforms of 1909 introduced separate electorate for the Muslims.

• Jinnah proposed one third of seats to be reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislature.

• He demanded a separate nation for the Muslims.

• Ramsay Mac Donald's Communal award widened the religious differences.

• In 1940 the demand for a separate nation was made by Jinnah at the Lahore session.

• The British followed the policy of divide and rule.

In the Shimla conference, the Congress and the Muslim League could not come to an agreement.

• In the 1946 elections the Muslim League won most of the seats reserved for the Muslims thus bolstering its claim.

• Jinnah declared 16 August 1946 as the 'Direct Action Day'.

• Hindu - Muslim conflict spread to other districts of Bengal.

• When the interime government was formed, only after some hesitation the Muslims joined it.

• All the above factors made the partition of India inevitable.

• Mount Batten plan proposed that India should be partitioned into two dominions - India and Pakistan.

• On 15th August 1947 India won independance.

 

VII. Activity

 

1. Students can be asked to mark the important places of Gandhian Movement in a map and write a sentence or two about what happened there.

2. Students can be divided into groups and asked to debate the views of Gandhi, Jinnah, B.R. Ambedkar, Revolutionaries and Communists.

 

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