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# An Example of Parallelization

As an example of automatic parallelization and parallelization using OpenMP, we will consider a short code that determines whether each point in a matrix is in or out of the Mandelbrot set.

An Example of Parallelization

As an example of automatic parallelization and parallelization using OpenMP, we will consider a short code that determines whether each point in a matrix is in or out of the Mandelbrot set. Listing 7.63 shows the code.

Listing 7.63   Code to Determine Whether a Point Is in the Mandelbrot Set

int inSet( double ix,   double iy )

{

int     iterations =    0;

double x =   ix, y = iy;

double x2 = x*x,   y2 = y*y;

while   ( (x2 + y2 < 4) && (iterations < 1000) )  /* Line 9 */

{

y = 2*x*y + iy;

x =     x2 – y2 + ix;

x2=     x*x;

y2=     y*y;

iterations++;

}

return iterations;

}

The code in Listing 7.63 contains a single loop. This loop is not suitable for automatic parallelization for two reasons:

n   Each iteration of the loop depends on the previous iteration. It is not possible for the calculation of the next iteration to start until the previous iteration has com-pleted. This fact means that the loop can be calculated only in serial.

n   The loop iterates until the point either escapes a circle of radius 2 centered around the origin or the maximum iteration count is exceeded. Since the trip count is unknown until the loop is executed, it is not possible to assign the work to multi-ple threads because it is not known how much work there is to perform.

Listing 7.64 shows the main code, including OpenMP parallelization directives. This allocates a large matrix to hold the results of the calculations and then computes for every point in the matrix whether it is in or out of the Mandelbrot set. The final loop in the code is purely there to ensure that the compiler does not eliminate the main loops because the values are not used.

Listing 7.64   Main Loop for Mandelbrot Code

#define SIZE 4000

int main()

{

int *matrix[SIZE];

for ( int i=0; i<SIZE; i++ )    /* Line 24 */

{

matrix[i] = (int*)malloc( SIZE*sizeof(int) );

}

#pragma omp parallel for

for ( int x=0; x<SIZE; x++ )    /* Line 30 */

for ( int y=0; y<SIZE; y++ )    /* Line 31 */

{

double xv = ( (double)x - (SIZE/2) ) /     (SIZE/4);

double yv = ( (double)y - (SIZE/2) ) /     (SIZE/4);

matrix[x][y] = inSet(xv,yv);

}

for ( int x=0; x<SIZE; x++ )    /* Line 38 */

for ( int y=0; y<SIZE; y++ )    /* Line 39 */

if ( matrix[x][y] == -7 ) { printf(""); }

}

To get automatic parallelization to work, the routine inSet must be inlined so that the compiler can determine that parallelization is safe. Solaris Studio compilers require an optimization level of at least -xO4. Listing 7.65 shows the result of compiling the code. The compiler has parallelized the inlined call to inSet, but it has only been able to parallelize the innermost loop. The outermost loop iterates over an array of pointers, and multiples of those pointers could point to the same memory address; hence, the compiler cannot parallelize the outer loop because of aliasing issues.

Listing 7.65   Results of Using Automatic Parallelization on the Mandelbrot Example

\$ cc -xO4 -xautopar -xloopinfo mandle.c

"mandle.c", line 9: not parallelized, loop has multiple exits

"mandle.c", line 9: not parallelized, loop has multiple exits (inlined loop) "mandle.c", line 24: not parallelized, call may be unsafe

"mandle.c", line 30: not parallelized, unsafe dependence "mandle.c", line 31: PARALLELIZED

"mandle.c", line 38: not parallelized, call may be unsafe "mandle.c", line 39: not parallelized, call may be unsafe

The source code in Listing 7.64 already includes an OpenMP directive to make the outermost loop parallel. Listing 7.66 shows the result of compiling and running the OpenMP code with various numbers of threads.

Listing 7.66   Performance of Code Parallelized with OpenMP

%    timex ./a.out

real 28.83

user 28.69

sys  0.07

%    timex ./a.out

real 20.92

user 28.69

sys  0.07

%    timex ./a.out

real 23.35

user 28.69

sys  0.06

The code takes about 29 seconds of wall time to run with a single thread, roughly 21 seconds with two threads and just over 23 seconds with three threads. This is far from ideal scaling, which would be that the runtime decreased in proportion to the number of running threads. Notice that the user time for the code remains constant. This means that the same amount of work is performed, regardless of the number of threads used. This indicates that the poor scaling is not the result of the threads having to perform an increasing amount of work. If the amount of work is not increasing, it suggests that the scaling problems are the result of that work being poorly distributed between the threads.

Figure 7.1 shows the timeline view from the Solaris Studio Performance Analyzer running the code with two threads. This view shows the activity of the two threads over the entire duration of the run. There are three lines shown. The top line shows the activ-ity of all the threads in the application. This shows that initially both threads were run-ning entirely in user mode, and around 8 seconds into the run, only one of the two threads was in user mode while the other thread was idle. The other two lines indicate the activity of the two threads. The top one shows that the master thread was active over the entire duration of the run, as is to be expected by the OpenMP execution model. The second thread was active only during the first 8.5 seconds of the run. This confirms that the poor scaling is because of an unequal distribu-tion of work between the two threads.

It is easy to understand where this workload imbalance comes from when the actual image being computed is viewed. Figure 7.2 shows the image that is being computed. One thread is computing the left half, the other the right half. For a large number of the points, colored black in the image, it takes only a few iterations to determine that the point is not in the set. However, it takes the maximum limit on the iteration count to determine that a point is, or might be, in the set; these points are colored white.

The areas that are shaded black in the figure take relatively few iterations and are computed quickly. The areas that are shaded white take many iterations and therefore take some time to compute. Comparing the left and right halves of the image, it is apparent that the right half contains more black pixels than the left half. This means that the thread computing the right half will take less time than the thread computing the left half. This is the source of the workload imbalance between the two threads.

Fixing the workload imbalance is relatively easy since it is just a matter of changing the scheduling clause for the parallel code. Either dynamic or guided scheduling could be used. Listing 7.67 shows the code modified to use dynamic scheduling. Listing 7.67  Mandelbrot Code Modified to Use Dynamic Scheduling

#define SIZE 4000

int main()

{

int *matrix[SIZE];

for (int i=0; i<SIZE; i++)

{

matrix[i]=(int*)malloc(SIZE*sizeof(int));

}

#pragma omp parallel for schedule( dynamic )

for (int x=0; x<SIZE; x++) for (int y=0; y<SIZE; y++)

{

double xv = ((double)x-(SIZE/2))/(SIZE/4); double yv = ((double)y-(SIZE/2))/(SIZE/4); matrix[x][y]=inSet(xv,yv);

}

for (int x=0; x<SIZE; x++) for (int y=0; y<SIZE; y++)

if (matrix[x][y]==-7){printf("");}

}

Listing 7.68 shows the resulting scaling from this code. With dynamic scheduling, the work is evenly distributed across the threads, leading to nearly linear performance gains as the number of threads increases.

Listing 7.68  Scaling of Dynamically Scheduled Code

%    setenv OMP_NUM_THREADS 1

%    timex ./a.out

real 28.84

user 28.69

sys  0.07

%    setenv OMP_NUM_THREADS 2

%    timex ./a.out

real 15.42

user 28.69

sys  0.07

%    setenv OMP_NUM_THREADS 3

%    timex ./a.out

real 10.49

user 28.70

sys  0.08

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Multicore Application Programming For Windows, Linux, and Oracle Solaris : Using Automatic Parallelization and OpenMP : An Example of Parallelization |