Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update
In these techniques, when a transaction issues an update command, the database on disk can be updated immediately, without any need to wait for the transaction to reach its commit point. Notice that it is not a requirement that every update be
applied immediately to disk; it is just possible that some updates are applied to disk before the transaction commits.
Provisions must be made for undoing the effect of update operations that have been applied to the database by a failed transaction. This is accomplished by rolling back the transaction and undoing the effect of the transaction’s write_item operations. Therefore, the UNDO-type log entries, which include the old value (BFIM) of the item, must be stored in the log. Because UNDO can be needed during recovery, these methods follow a steal strategy for deciding when updated main memory buffers can be written back to disk (see Section 23.1.3). Theoretically, we can distinguish two main categories of immediate update algorithms. If the recovery technique ensures that all updates of a transaction are recorded in the database on disk before the transaction commits, there is never a need to REDO any operations of committed transactions. This is called the UNDO/NO-REDO recovery algorithm. In this method, all updates by a transaction must be recorded on disk before the transaction commits, so that REDO is never needed. Hence, this method must utilize the force strategy for deciding when updated main memory buffers are written back to disk (see Section 23.1.3).
If the transaction is allowed to commit before all its changes are written to the data-base, we have the most general case, known as the UNDO/REDO recovery algorithm. In this case, the steal/no-force strategy is applied (see Section 23.1.3). This is also the most complex technique. We will outline an UNDO/REDO recovery algo-rithm and leave it as an exercise for the reader to develop the UNDO/NO-REDO vari-ation. In Section 23.5, we describe a more practical approach known as the ARIES recovery technique.
When concurrent execution is permitted, the recovery process again depends on the protocols used for concurrency control. The procedure RIU_M (Recovery using Immediate Updates for a Multiuser environment) outlines a recovery algorithm for concurrent transactions with immediate update (UNDO/REDO recovery). Assume that the log includes checkpoints and that the concurrency control protocol pro-duces strict schedules—as, for example, the strict two-phase locking protocol does. Recall that a strict schedule does not allow a transaction to read or write an item unless the transaction that last wrote the item has committed (or aborted and rolled back). However, deadlocks can occur in strict two-phase locking, thus requiring abort and UNDO of transactions. For a strict schedule, UNDO of an operation requires changing the item back to its old value (BFIM).
Procedure RIU_M (UNDO/REDO with checkpoints).
1. Use two lists of transactions maintained by the system: the committed trans-actions since the last checkpoint and the active transactions.
2. Undo all the write_item operations of the active (uncommitted) transactions, using the UNDO procedure. The operations should be undone in the reverse of the order in which they were written into the log.
3. Redo all the write_item operations of the committed transactions from the log, in the order in which they were written into the log, using the REDO procedure defined earlier.
The UNDO procedure is defined as follows:
Procedure UNDO (WRITE_OP). Undoing a write_item operation write_op consists of examining its log entry [write_item, T, X, old_value, new_value] and set-ting the value of item X in the database to old_value, which is the before image (BFIM). Undoing a number of write_item operations from one or more trans-actions from the log must proceed in the reverse order from the order in which the operations were written in the log.
As we discussed for the NO-UNDO/REDO procedure, step 3 is more efficiently done by starting from the end of the log and redoing only the last update of each item X.
Whenever an item is redone, it is added to a list of redone items and is not redone again. A similar procedure can be devised to improve the efficiency of step 2 so that an item can be undone at most once during recovery. In this case, the earliest UNDO is applied first by scanning the log in the forward direction (starting from the beginning of the log). Whenever an item is undone, it is added to a list of undone items and is not undone again.
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