First World War
Colonialism is the extension of a nation's sovereignty over another territory beyond its borders. Colonizers generally dominate the resources, labor, and markets of the colonial territory. They also impose socio-cultural, religious and linguistic aspects on the conquered population.
European colonialism began in the 15th century with the 'Age of Discovery'. This was led by Portuguese and Spanish explorations of the Americas, and the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India, and East Asia. By 17th century, England, France and Holland successfully established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other and those of Spain and Portugal. Spain and Portugal were weakened after the loss of their New World colonies. But Britain, France and Holland turned their attention to the Old World, particularly South Africa, India and South East Asia, where colonies were established. The industrialization of the 19th century led to what has been termed the era of New Imperialism. The fight among the European countries to control and establish new colonies led to the First World War.
There are different types of colonies. Settler colonies, such as the original thirteen states of the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Argentina arose from the emigration of peoples from a mother country. This led to the displacement of the indigenous peoples.
Colonies of dependencies came into existence due to the conquest by foreign countries. Examples in this category include the British India, Dutch Indonesia, French Indo-China , and the Japanese colonial empire.
Plantation colonies such
as Barbados, Saint-Dominguez and Jamaica,
where the white colonizers imported black slaves - who rapidly began to
outnumber their owners- led to minority rule, similar to a dependency.
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