dimensions and factors influence the definition of e-governance or electronic
governance. The word ―electronic‖ in the term e-governance implies technology
driven governance. E-governance is the application of information and
communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of
information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone
systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C),
government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back
office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.
Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in
a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups
that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and
businesses/interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries.
four basic models are available – government-to-citizen (customer),
government-to-employees, government-to-government and government-to-business.
1 Difference between E-Government and E-Governance
terms are treated to be the same; however, there is some difference between the
two. "E-government" is the use of the ICTs in public administration -
combined with organizational change and new skills - to improve public services
and democratic processes and to strengthen support to public. The problem in
this definition to be congruence definition of e-governance is that there is no
provision for governance of ICTs. As a matter of fact, the governance of ICTs
requires most probably a substantial increase in regulation and policy-making
capabilities, with all the expertise and opinion-shaping processes along the
various social stakeholders of these concerns. So, the perspective of the
e-governance is "the use of the technologies that both help governing and
have to be governed". The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) based
e-governance projects are hugely successful in India. United Telecoms Limited
known as UTL is a major player in India on PPP based e-governance projects.
Each project had mammoth state wide area networks in these states.
is the future; many countries are looking forward to for a corruption-free
government. E-government is one-way communication protocol whereas e-governance
is two-way communication protocol. The essence of e-governance is to reach the
beneficiary and ensure that the services intended to reach the desired
individual has been met with. There should be an auto-response to support the
essence of e-governance, whereby the Government realizes the efficacy of its
governance. E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the
the identity of the end beneficiary is a challenge in all citizen-centric
services. Statistical information published by governments and world bodies
does not always reveal the facts. The best form of e-governance cuts down on
unwanted interference of too many layers while delivering governmental
services. It depends on good infrastructural setup with the support of local
processes and parameters for governments to reach their citizens or end
beneficiaries. Budget for planning, development and growth can be derived from
well laid out e-governance systems
2 Government to customer
of Government to Customer (G2C) e-Governance to be offer a variety of ICT
services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen
the relationship between government and citizens using technology.
several methods of Government to Customer e-Governance. Two-way communication
allows citizens to instant message directly with public administrators, and
cast remote electronic votes (electronic voting) and instant opinion voting.
Transactions such as payment of services, such as city utilities, can be
completed online or over the phone. Mundane services such as name or address
changes, applying for services or grants, or transferring existing services are
more convenient and no longer have to be completed face to face.
e-Governance is unbalanced across the globe as not everyone has Internet access
and computing skills, but the United States, European Union, and Asia are
ranked the top three in development.
Federal Government of the United States has a broad framework of G2C technology
to enhance citizen access to Government information and services. Benefits.Gov
is an official US government website that informs citizens of benefits they are
eligible for and provides information of how to apply assistance. US State
Governments also engage in G2C interaction through the Department of
Transportation, Department of Public Safety, United States Department of Health
and Human Services, United States Department of Education, and others. As with
e-Governance on the global level, G2C services vary from state to state. The
Digital States Survey ranks states on social measures, digital democracy,
e-commerce, taxation, and revenue. The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utah in
the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores. Municipal governments in
the United States also use Government to Customer technology to complete
transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for
innovative technology. Government Technology's "Best of the Web 2012"
named Louisville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX
the top five G2C city portals.
countries were ranked second among all geographic regions. The Single Point of
Access for Citizens of Europe supports travel within Europe and e-Europe is a
1999 initiative supporting online government. Main focuses are to provide
public information, allow customers to have access to basic public services,
simplify online procedures, and promote electronic signatures.
ranked third in comparison, and there are diverse G2C programs between
countries. Singapore‘s e-Citizen Portal is an organized single access point to
government information and services. South Korea‘s Home Tax Service (HTS)
provides citizens with 24/7 online service such as tax declaration. Taiwan has
top ranking G2C technology including an online motor vehicle services system,
which provides 21 applications and payment services to citizens.
3 G2C Concerns
switch to Government to Customer e-Governance will cost a large amount of money
in development and implementation. In addition, Government agencies do not
always engage citizens in the development of their e-Gov services or accept
feedback. Customers identified the following barriers to Government to Customer
e-Governance: not everyone has Internet access, especially in rural or low income
areas; G2C technology can be problematic for citizens who lack computing
skills. some G2C sites have technology requirements (such as browser
requirements and plug-ins) that won‘t allow access to certain services,
language barriers, the necessity for an e-mail address to access certain
services, and a lack of privacy.
4 Government to employees
to Employee partnership (G2E) is one of four main primary interactions in the
delivery model of E-Governance. It is the relationship between online tools,
sources, and articles that help employees maintain communication with the
government and their own companies. E-Governance relationship with Employees
allows new learning technology in one simple place as the computer. Documents
can now be stored and shared with other colleagues online. E-governance makes
it possible for employees to become paperless and makes it easy for employees
to send important documents back and forth to colleagues all over the world
instead of having to print out these records or fax G2E services also include
software for maintaining personal information and records of employees. Some of
the benefits of G2E expansion includes,
maintaining the online sources to view paychecks, pay stubs, pay bills, and
keep records for tax information-benefits- be able to look up what benefits an
employee is receiving and what benefits they have a right to.
allows for new and current employees to regularly maintain the training they
have through the development of new technology and to allow new employees to
train and learn over new materials in one convenient location. E-learning is
another way to keep employees informed on the important materials they need to
know through the use of visuals, animation, videos, etc. It is usually a
computer based learning tool, although not always. It is also a way for
employees to learn at their own pace (distance learning).
records of personal information- Allows the system to keep all records in one
easy location to update with every single bit of information that is relevant
to a personal file. Examples being social security numbers, tax information,
current address, and other information.
5 e-governance in India
is a wonderful tool to bring transparency, accountability and whistle blowing
in India. However, it has its own share of challenges that include
administrative, legal and technological challenges. There may be instances
where e-governance can itself be a source of corruption. Use of e-governance in
India would also require an efficient mechanism to deal with e-waste. Absence
of privacy and data protection laws has also created many hurdles before
successful implementation of e-governance in India. However, the biggest hurdle
before Indian e-governance initiatives comes from poor cyber security in India.
According to techno legal experts, e-governance without cyber security is
useless in India. In fact, that makes the critical infrastructure of India
vulnerable to sophisticated cyber attacks. Absence of mandatory e-governance
services in India is the main reason for apathy towards this crucial field.