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Chapter: Web Technology : Representing Web Data


Is the syntax for specifying a collection of elements on other info contained within xml doc.


Is the syntax for specifying a collection of elements on other info contained within xml doc.


XPATH expression will be applied to parse the xml doc. which constructs a tree like representation of xml doc. similar to DOM tree. The root of the XPath parse tree is ‘document’.


Location Paths


<xsl:template match="/"> which represents the XPath document root. An XPath expression such as this represents one or more nodes within XPath parse tree is known as location path.


This location path consists a ‘location step’


Location step has two parts:


An axis name followed by (::) Node test


child::Emp_Id is an example of a location step and has two parts:


Axis name specifies the direction to which we can search a node

Node test specifies an element name selected for transformation




XPath uses some predicate which constructs the node test. Predicate can be either child::<element name>




Attribute::<value> Absolute and Relative Location Path


A location path can consists of several location steps separated by / character.


Displaying XML in the browser: (XML+CSS program)


XMLuses a processing instruction which is a special xml rag that gas syntax similar to that of xml declaration. The tag begins with <? and ends with ?>. Each processing instruction begins with the name as the target of the processing instruction. The tag “xml-stylesheet” is used to link the xml document with the css file.





<? xml version=”1.0” encoding=”UTF-8” ?>


<? xml-stylesheet type=”text/html” href=”helloworld.css” ?> <message> Hello World! </message>


Hellowworld.css message { display:block; margin: 8pt; font-weight=bold;




When xml doc. Helloworld.xml is executed, the xml doc is linked to the specified “Helloworld.css” file and displays the output after applying css specifications.


Separating Programming and Presentation: JSP Technology What is JSP?


JSP Stands for "Java Server Pages". Using "JSP" we can use both, static HTML with dynamically-generated HTML. Web pages created using CGI programs are mostly static , dynamic part is limited to a few small locations. But using CGI and servlet , you can generate entire page through one program. Using JSP, you can built two parts separately.


JSP is the product of Sun Microsystems Inc.JSP has more advance features than Servlet . JSP separates the presentation logic from the business logic ,provide facility to developers to work separately without any trouble.JSP have the properties of Cold fusion and ASP and hence provide the flexibility to embed the business logic efficiently within the HTML content (presentation logic).


Advantages of JSP:-

JSP is useful for server side programming


JSP are translated and compiled into JAVA servlets but are easier to develop than JAVA servlets.


JSP uses simplified scripting language based syntax for embedding HTML into JSP. JSP containers provide easy way for accessing standard objects and actions.


JSP reaps all the benefits provided by JAVA servlets and web container environment, but they have an added advantage of being simpler and more natural program for web enabling enterprise developer


JSP use HTTP as default request /response communication paradigm and thus make JSP ideal as Web Enabling Technology


JSP and Servlets

JSP documents are not executed directly

– When a JSP document is first visited,

1. first the server translates the JSP document to a servlet

2. Compiles the servlet

– Then the servlet is executed


– If any error occurs while executing, the exception will occur which gives the information for the servlet not for the JSP


– A JSP-generated servlet has a _jspService() method rather than doGet() or doPost()


– This method begins to access the java code by creating a number of implicit objects.


Implicit Objects in JSP JSP Implicit Objects are:


Pre-defined variables that can be included in JSP expressions and scriptlets. Implemented from servlet classes and interfaces.




Out             JSP writer


Request      HttpServletRequest

Response    HttpServletRespose

Session       HttpSession

Application ServletContext

Config        Sevlet Config

Page            Object


Difference between servlet and JSP:


In servlets both the presentation and business logic are place it together where as in jsp both are separated by defining by java beans.


Servlet is a java code where HTML code can be embedded whereas in jsp, it is a kind of HTML where java code can be embedded by using special tags.


JSP allows creating and using custom tag libraries.




<%@page language=”java” content Type="text/html" %> // jsp element <html><body>


<% out.println(“JSP = HTML+JAVA”) %> // jsp element


Today date is:


<% = new Date().toString() %> // jsp element and java method </body> </html>


In this code, jsp elements that use java code are merged with HTML code.


Scoped Variables


Four different types of variable scopes within the JSP page can be used:


Page Scope: Objects stored in page scope can only be retrieved during the processing of that page for a specific request.


Request Scope: Objects stored in request scope can be retrieved during the processing of all pages taking part in the processing of a request.


Session Scope: Object stored in session scope can be retrieved by any pages accessed by a user during a single interactive session with the Web application.


Application Scope: Object stored in application scope is accessible from all pages and for all users, until the Web application itself is unloaded


Display "Hello JSP" using Jsp expression


In this section, We will simply output "Hello JSP" in a web browser using Jsp expression. JSP expressions insert values directly into the output. The syntax to include a JSP expressions in the


JSP file is:

<%= expression %>.


In JSP page, we can use both, static HTML with dynamically-generated HTML. In this program, we produce output "hello Jsp" using this tag :


<%= "Hello World!" %>


All the other content except this is simple HTML code. Code of this program:




<head><title>Hello World JSP Page.</title></head> <body>


<<%= "Hello JSP!" %> </body>




Output : Hello JSP!


Web Applications


  A web application is a collection of resources that are used together to implement some web-based functionality


To develop a web applications the following resources are needed:

Server side Programming

Servlets /JSP,


   Client side programming : HTML documents, style sheets, XML , images, non servlet java classes etc,


Web form validation: JavaScript, non-servlet Java classes, etc.

Other resources:


Databases: MS-Access, MySQL/SQL

Web server: Appache Tiomcat/ Java Web server/ Glass fish,

Browser: IE/Netscape/Chrome/FireFox


Running JSP Applications


The following section explains the steps you must take to run sample JSP into TomCat The steps involved


1. Preparation

2. Deploy

3. Run




1. Preparation



Step 1: Create required jsp flies like ExcelCalculatorJSP.html, and ExcelCalculatorExample.jsp files


Step 2. Creare a folder under webapp directory in tomcat installation path eg:C:\Tomcat5.5\webapps\test


Step 3. Copy all your JSP files in a folder by name "test".


2. Deploy


1.  In the test directory, create two directories named META-INF and WEB-INF. Now you should have a directory structure that looks like this:


2. Create the XML descriptor: Here is the sample XML descriptor you can use to deploy this example. Save this file as web.xml in the WEB-INF directory.


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="Cp1252"?> <web-app> <display-name>ExcelCalculatorJSP</display-name> <servlet>


<servlet-name>ExcelCalculatorJSP </servlet-name> <display-name>ExcelCalculatorJSP</display-name> <jsp-file>/ExcelCalculatorExample.jsp </jsp-file> </servlet>


<session-config> <session-timeout>30</session-timeout> </session-config>




3. Create a manifest file: Create a file called Manifest.mf (it can be an empty file) and

Save it in the META-INF directory.

4. After you finished putting these files on the correct place, your directory structure looks like this:


5. Now you need to add this new JSP to server.xml. Go to the conf directory and open server.xml.


6. Add the following lines at the bottom of server.xml


<Context path="/test" docBase="webapps/test" crossContext="true" debug="0" reloadable="true" trusted="false" >




3. Run

1. Shut down the server by issuing this command: shutdown


2. Re-start server by issuing this command: startup

3. In browser, enter: http://localhost:8080/test/ExcelCalculatorJSP.html


Basic JSP

JSP page has the following components(contents)





Standard Actions





The directives are used to specify the attributes of the JSP page. Also it can be used to import java packages in to the jsp page. For example,


<%@ page language=”java” contentType=”text/html” %> <% @page import =”java.util.*” %>


Where language=”java” tells tha the page is contains java code, the code contentType=”text/html” specifies the MIME type, the code import =”java.util.*” used to import all the classes of java’s utility package into this page.




Provide a mechanism to define variables and methods. Declarative statements are placed within <%! and %> symbols and always end with a semicolon.


Syntax: <%! Declare all the variables here %> For example, <% int a, b %>


3.Scriplets: Consists of valid Java code snippets that are enclosed within <% and %> symbols. The syntax to declare JSP scriptlets to include valid Java code is:


<% Java code %>


Scriplets can't generate HTML itself. Using "out" variable, it can generate HTML. This variable does not need to be declared. It is already predefined for Scriplets, along with some other variables. The "out" variable is of type "javax.servlet.jsp.JspWriter".


For example, <HTML> <BODY> <%


java.util.Date date = new java.util.Date();



Hello! The time is now <%


out.println( String.valueOf( date ));





Output: Hello! The time is now 12/12/2010 12:10:02


Insert values directly into the output. The syntax to include a JSP expression in the JSP


file is:

<%= expression %>.

For example, <%= "Hello World!" %>


5.Actions: The elements which are used to access the java bean in a jsp page is called jsp action elements.JSP defines the following action elements:


Standard action and Custom action



Java Bean classes and JSP


Java Beans are reusable components. They are used to separate Business logic from the Presentation logic. Internally, a bean is just an instance of a class. JSP’s provide three basic tags for working with Beans.


<jsp:useBean id=“bean name” class=“bean class” scope = “page | request | session |application ”/>

bean name = the name that refers to the bean.

Bean class = name of the java class that defines the bean.


<jsp:setProperty name = “id” property = “someProperty” value = “someValue” /> id = the name of the bean as specified in the useBean tag.


property = name of the property to be passed to the bean. value = value of that particular property .


An variant for this tag is the property attribute can be replaced by an “*”. What this does is that it accepts all the form parameters and thus reduces the need for writing multiple setProperty tags. The only consideration is that the form parameter names should be the same as that of the bean property names.


<jsp:getProperty name = “id” property = “someProperty” />

Here the property is the name of the property whose value is to be obtained from the






JSTL: JSP Standard Tag Libraries is a collection of JSP custom tags The goal of JSTL, is to help simplify Java Server Pages page authoring tasks. To achieve this goal, JSTL has provided custom tags for many common JSP page authoring tasks that require scripting statements to manipulate server side dynamic data.


JSTL offers tags through 4 functional areas: core - Basic scripting


xml - XML processing


fmt - Internationalization of formatting sql - Data base accessing

functions – for using functions

Core tag:











The <c:set> action provides a tag-based mechanism for creating and setting scoped variables. <c:set var="variable_name" scope="page | request | session | application"




The <c:remove> action is used to delete a scoped variable. For example,

<c:remove var="variable_name" scope="page | request | session | application" />




The <c:forEach> custom tag is used to fetch and display collections of data, typically in the form of a list or sequence of rows in a table. This tag supports two different styles of



<c:forEach     var="variable_name"  varStatus="name"  begin="expression"

end="expression" step="expression">




The index of the iteration starts at the value of the begin attribute, is incremented by the value of the step attribute, and halts iteration when it exceeds the value of the end attribute. If the step attribute is omitted, the step size defaults to 1.


For example,


<c:forEach var=”i” begin=”10” end=”20” step=”2”> <c:out value=”${i}” />




Output: 10 12 14 16 18 20




<c:if> evaluates a single test expression and then processes its body content only if that expression evaluates to true. If not, the tag's body content is ignored.


Syntax for the <c:if> conditional action:

<c:if test="expression" var="name" scope="scope">



For example,

<c:set var=”fruit” />

<c:if test=”${fruit==’Apple’}” />


I like <c:out value=”${fruit}”/> very much! </c:if>


<c:set var=”fruit” />

<c:if test=”${fruit==’Mango’}” />


I like <c:out value=”${fruit}”/> very much! </c:if>




<c:choose> is provided for cases in which mutually exclusive tests are required to determine what content should be displayed.


Syntax for the <c:choose> action: <c:choose>


<c:when test="expression">








</c:choose> For example,


<c:set var=”fruit” /> <c:choose>


<c:when test=”${fruit==’Apple’}”> I like <c:out value=”${fruit}”/> much </c:when>


<c:when test=”${fruit==’Mango’}” >


I like <c:out value=”${fruit}”/> very much </c:when>




I do not like <c:out value=”${fruit}”/> </c:otherwise>






The <c:out> tag evaluates the expression specified by its value attribute, then prints the result. If the optional default attribute is specified, this action will instead print its value if the value attribute's expression evaluates either to null or an empty String.


<c:out value="expression" default="expression" />


Expression Language (EL)


This is one of the most important features of the JSTL and is a prominent feature of the JSP 2.0 specification.



The Expression Language or EL as it is known is used by JSP developers to access and use application data without using java code. In other words, EL is the replacement for java code within the jsp page.


The JSP 2.0 expression language helps to simplify the presentation layer by replacing hard-tomaintain Java scripting elements in jsp page.


The EL statements are always used within ${….}


Basic syntax

The syntax of expression language is very simple. EL expressions are invoked with this



${expr}, where expr represents an any valid expression. For example,


${20 * 2} For example,


Step 1: create a html file to get a user name <html> <body>


<form method=”post” action=”ElDemo.jsp”> Enter user name: <input type=”text” name=”t1” /> <input type=”submit” value=”submit” /> </form>




Step 2: Create a jsp file to obtain user name from the above html file using EL <%@ page contentType=”text/html” %>


<%@ taglib prefix=”c” uri=http://java.sun.som/jsp/jstl/core %> <html><body>


Entered user name is <c:out value=”${param.t1}” /> </body></html>


EL Reserved Words:

Following words are EL keywords and hence must not be used as identifiers:


and    eq      gt       true   instanceof   mod

or      ne      le       false  empty         not

lt       ge      null    div             


EL Operators:


EL includes several operators to manipulate and compare data accessed by EL expressions:

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