What intraoperative monitoring techniques should be used?
Standard American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) monitors are a minimum requirement for intraoperative monitoring. Invasive monitoring, such as an intra-arterial line and a pulmonary artery catheter, can be used to enhance patient management in the perioperative period. Post-peri-cardiocentesis pulmonary edema, right and left ventricular dysfunction, and circulatory collapse have been described. Intraoperative echocardiography is extremely useful in the management of the above-mentioned complications.