24 Product Design and CAD/CAM in the Production System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Product Design and CAD
The Design Process
Application of Computers in Design
2 CAD System Hardware
3. CAM, CAD/CAM, and ClM
Computer Aided Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
4. Quality Function Deployment
This final part of the book is concerned with manufacturing support systems that operate at the enterprise level, as indicated in Figure 24.1. The manufacturing support systems are the procedures and systems used by the firm to manage production and solve the techuical and logistics problems associated with designing the products. planning the processes, ordering materials, controlling work-in-process as it moves through the plant, and delivering products to the customer. Many of these functions can be automated using computer systems; hence, we have terms like computer-aided design and computer integrated manufacturing. Whereas most of the previous automation levels have emphasized the flow of the physical product through the factory, the enterprise level is more concerned with the flow of information in the factory and throughout the finn. While most of the topics in Part V deal with computerized systems, we also describe some systems and procedures that are labor intensive in their operation. Examples include manual process planning (Section 25.1) and the Kanban production control technique (Section 26.7.1). Even the computer-automated systems include people. People make the production systems work.
The present chapter is concerned with product design and the various technologies that are used to amplify and automate the design function. CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) is one of those technologies. CAD/CAM involves the use of the digital computer to accomplish certain functions in product design and production. CAD is concerned with using the computer to support the design engineering function, and CAM is concerned with using the computer to support manufacturing engineering activities. The combination of CAD and CAM in the term CAD/CAM is symbolic of efforts to integrate the design and manufacturing functions of a firm into a continuum of activities rather than to treat them as two separate and disparate activities, as they had been considered in the past. ClM (computer integrated manufacturing) includes all of CAD/CAM but also embraces the business functions of a manufacturing firm. ClM implements computer technology in all of the operational and information processing activities related to manufacturing. In the final section of the chapter, we discuss a systematic method for approaching a product design project. called quality function deployment.
Next 2 topics are concerned with topics in production systems and ClM other than product design. Next 2nd Chapter deals with process planning and how it can be automated using computer systems. We also discuss ways in which product design and manufacturing and other functions can be integrated using an approach called concurrent engineering. An important issue in concurrent engineering is design/or manufacturing hat is, how can a product be designed to make it easier (and cheaper) to produce? Chapter 26 discusses the various methods used in the modern practice of production planning and control. This includes material requirements planning, shop floor control, and just-in-time production. Our final chapter in part V takes a broad view of the manufacturing enterprise by dealing with some contemporary management topics such as lean production and agile manufacturing.