What are the general specifications for first
Foundation and plinth.
doors and windows.
distempering and colour wasting. painting.
2. What are monolithic
wall? write its classifications?
built of a material requiring some kind of shuttering in the initial
Masonry can be classified into the follow wing
hollow block concrete masonry.
reinforced masonry. composite masonry.
Plinth:- It is the horizontal
course of stone or brick provided at the base of the wall above ground level.
It indicates the height of the ground floor level above the natural ground
level. It protects the building from dampness.
What are classifications of stone masonry There
are two types ,they are
1. rubber masonry.
2. ashlar masonry.
What is rubber masonry and ashlar masonry? Rubber
Stones of irregular sizes are
used. stones may be undressed or roughly dressed. using hammer having wider
This is a costlier, high grade
and superior quality of masonry. The work built from accurately dressed stones
with uniform and very fine joints of about 3mm. thickness is termed as ashlar
English bond and Double Flemish bond.
English bond : double Flemish
More compact and stronger for
walls : Less compact and stronger.
having thickness more than 1(1/2)
Not pleasing appearance of the
facing. : Better appearance in the facing.
No strict supervision and skill
required for its construction. : Good
workmanship and careful supervision is required.
More in cost than Double Flemish
bond. : Cheaper
in cost-because number of bricks bats are used.
What are the defects in brick masonry. Defects in
Crystallization of salts from bricks.
Corrosion of embedded iron or steel.
Shrinkage on drying.
Mention the common sizes of building blocks. The
common sizes of building blocks are
mm- standard size hollow block.
mm- hollow building tiles.
mm- hollow concrete blocks for partition.
What the types of flooring commonly used.
mud flooring muram flooring
cement concrete flooring mosaic flooring
tiled flooring marble flooring
10. Define damp proof
course., what are its causes of dampness.
Definition :-The courses which
are laid to check the entry of water or moisture into the building are called
damp proof courses.
faulty design of structure
faulty construction or poor
workmanship use of poor quality materials in construction.
11. Define roofs.
Roof:-A roof is defined as the
uppermost part of the building which is constructed in the form of a frame work
to give protection to the building against rain , heat wind etc..
What are the uses of water proofing compounds.
Uses:- When water proofing
compounds is added to cement during construction it
prevents leakage. It is available
in powder form. It is mixed with cement by hand before cement is mixed with
13. what are the condition for
filters. Condition for filter:-
It should remove harmful particles from air.
It should be workable under different velocity.
It should have very low frictional resistance.
It should not cause contamination of incoming air.
it should be easy to clean.
14. Define fire resistance
Fire Resistance:- It is the time
during which an element of structure fulfils its function in building safely in
the event of fire of known intensity. Fire resistance is also defined as an
index of fire safety of buildings.
15. Define acoustics
Acoustics:-The term acoustics is
defined as the science of sound, and it describes the origin ,propagation and
sensation of sound.
16. What are the conditions for
good acoustics of an auditorium:-Conditions for good acoustics of an
The initial sound should be of
adequate intensity or loudness.
It is important for a speaker to be heard over a long
The sound produced should be
evenly spread over the whole area covered by audience. If the sound is not
evenly distributed echoes will be established.
the initial sound should be clear and distinct.
For music hall ,the initial sound
should reach the audience with same frequency and intensity.
All undesired sound should be reduced.
Scaffolding:-It is defined as the
temporary structure employed in the building construction for supporting
workers, materials and tools etc., during its construction alteration,
demolition, painting and repair etc.,
Write the types of scaffolding. Types of
scaffolding or Brick layer scaffolding.
scaffolding or Masons scaffolding.
or Needle scaffolding.
Write any some materials used for joints.
these are some of the materials used for joints.
20. Define flooring
Flooring:- The properly supported
horizontal surfaces which divide the building into different levels for
providing accommodation one above the other within space are called floors.