I. Choose the correct answer
1. __________ was the founder of Gupta dynasty.
a. Chandragupta I
b. Sri Gupta
c. Vishnu Gopa
Answer: b. Sri Gupta
2. Prayog Prashasti was composed by __________
Answer: c. Harisena
3. The monolithic iron pillar of Chandragupta is at __________
Answer: a. Mehrauli
4. __________ was the first Indian to explain the process of surgery.
Answer: b. Sushruta
5. ___________ was the Gauda ruler of Bengal.
Answer: a. Sasanka
II. Match the statement with the reason and tick the appropriate answer
1. Assertion (A) : Chandragupta I crowned himself as a monarch of a large kingdom after eliminating various small states in Northern India.
Reason (R): Chandragupta I married Kumaradevi of Lichchavi family.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
b. Both A and R are correct but R is not correct explanation of A.
c. A is correct but R is not correct.
d. A is not correct but R is correct.
Answer: a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Statement I: Chandragupta II did not have cordial relationship with the rulers of South India.
Statement II: The divine theory of kingship was practised by the Gupta rulers.
a. Statement I is wrong but statement II is correct.
b. Statement II is wrong but statement I is correct.
c. Both the statements are correct.
d. Both the statements are wrong.
Answer: a. Statement I is wrong but statement II is correct.
3. Which of the following is arranged in chronological order?
a. Srigupta – Chandragupta I – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya
b. Chandragupta I – Vikramaditya - Srigupta – Samudragupta
c. Srigupta – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya -Chandragupta I
d. Vikramaditya - Srigupta – Samudragupta - Chandragupta I
Answer: a. Srigupta – Chandragupta I – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya
4. Consider the following statements and find out which of the following statement(s) is are correct
1. Lending money at high rate of interest was practised.
2. Pottery and mining were the most flourishing industries.
a. 1. is correct
b. 2. is correct
c. Both 1 and 2 are wrong
d. Both 1 and 2 are correct
Answer: a. 1. is correct
5. Circle the odd one
1. Kalidasa, Harisena, Samudragupta, Charaka.
Kalidasa, Harisena, Samudragupta, Charaka.
2. Ratnavali, Harshacharita, Nagananda, Priyadharshika.
Ratnavali, Harshacharita, Nagananda, Priyadharshika.
III. Fill in the blanks
1. Srimeghavarman, the king of Ceylon, was a contemporary of Samudragupta.
2. Buddhist monk from China Fahien, visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II.
3. Huns invasion led to the downfall of Gupta Empire.
4. Land Tax was the main revenue to the Government.
5. The official language of the Guptas was Sanskrit.
6. Vishnugopa, the Pallava king was defeated by Samudragupta.
7. Harsha was the popular king of Vardhana dynasty.
8. Harsha shifted his capital from Thaneswar to Kanauj.
IV. State whether True or False
1. Dhanvantri was a famous scholar in the field of medicine. (True)
2. The structural temples built during the Gupta period resemble the Indo-Aryan style. (False)
3. Sati was not in practice in the Gupta Empire. (False)
4. Harsha belonged to Hinayana school of thought. (False)
5. Harsha was noted for his religious intolerance. (False)
V. Match the following
a. Mihirakula 1 Astronomy
b. Aryabhatta 2 Kumaragupta
c. Painting 3 Skandagupta
d. Nalanda University 4 Caravan trader
e. Sartavaga 5 Bagh
a. 1, 2, 4, 3, 5
b. 2, 4, 1, 3, 5
c. 3, 1, 5, 2, 4
d. 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
Answer : (b) 2, 4,1, 5, 3
a) Bana 1 10,000 students
b) Harsha 2 Prayag
c) Nalanda University 3 Harshacharita
d) Hiuen -Tsang 4 Ratnavali
e) Buddhist Assembly 5 Si-Yu-Ki
a. 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
b. 5, 2, 1, 3, 4
c. 3, 5, 1, 2, 4
d. 2, 1, 3, 4, 5
Answer: (c) 3, 5, 1, 2, 4
VI. Answer in one or two sentences
1. Who was given the title Kaviraja? Why?
Samudragupta was given the title Kaviraja because he was a lover of poetry and music.
2. What were the subjects taught at Nalanda University?
At Nalanda, Buddhism was the main subject of study. Other subjects like Yoga, Vedic literature and Medicine were also taught.
3. Explain the Divine Theory of Kingship.
The divine theory of kingship is the concept that king is the representative of God on earth and so he is answerable only to God and not to anyone else. This was practised by the Gupta rulers.
4. Highlight the achievement of Guptas in metallurgy.
The most important evidence of development in metallurgy was the Mehrauli Iron Pillar installed by King Chandragupta in Delhi. This monolithic iron pillar has lasted through the centuries without rusting.
5. Who were the Huns?
The Huns were the nomadic tribes, who, under their great Attila, were terrorising Rome and Constantinople. Associated with these tribes were the White Huns who came to India through Central Asia. They undertook regular invasions and were giving trouble to all Indian frontier states. After defeating Skandagupta, they spread across Central India.
6. Name the three kinds of tax collected during the Harsha’s reign.
Bhaga, Hiranya and Bali were the three kinds of tax collected during Harsha’s reign.
7 . Name the books authored by Harsha.
Harsha’s popular works are Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadharshika.
VII. Answer the following briefly
1. Write a note on Prashasti.
The Prayog Prashasti, composed by Samudragupta’s court poet Harisena was engraved on Allahabad Pillar.
Prashasti is a Sanskrit word, meaning commendation or ' in praise of ’. Court poets flattered their kings listing out their achievements. These accounts were later engraved on pillars so that the people could read them.
2. Give an account of Samudragupta’s military conquests.
Samudragupta was a great general and when he became emperor, he carried on a vigorous campaign all over the country and even in the south. In the southern Pallava kingdom, the king who was defeated by Samudragupta was Vishnugopa.
Samudragupta conquered nine kingdoms in northern India. He reduced 12 rulers of the southern India to the status of feudatories and forced them to pay tribute. He received homage from the rulers of East Bengal, Assam, Nepal, the eastern part of Punjab and various tribes of Rajasthan.
3. Describe the land classification during the Gupta period.
Kshetra - cultivable land
Khila - waste land
Aprahata - jungle or forest land
Vasti - habitable land
Gapata Saraha - Pastoral land
4. Write about Sresti and Sarthavaha traders.
There were two types of traders, namely Sresti and Sarthavaha.
Sresti : Sresti traders usually settled at a standard place.
Sarthavaha : Sarthavaha traders were caravan traders who carried their goods to different places.
5. Highlight the contribution of Guptas to architecture.
The Guptas were the first to construct temples, which evolved from the earlier tradition of rock-cut shrines. Adorned with towers and elaborate carvings, these temples were dedicated to all Hindu deities. The most notable rock-cut caves are found at Ajanta and Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh (Madhya Pradesh) and Udaygiri (Odisha). The structural temples built during this period resemble the characteristic features of the Dravidian style.
6. Name the works of Kalidasa.
Kalidasa's famous dramas were Sakunthala, Malavikagnimitra and Vikramaoorvashiyam. Other significant works of Kalidasa were Meghaduta, Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambava and Ritusamhara.
7. Estimate Harshvardhana as a poet and a dramatist.
Harsha, himself a poet and dramatist, gathered around him a best of poets and artists. Harsha's popular works are Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadharshika. His royal court was adorned by Banabhatta, Mayura, Hardatta and Jayasena.
1. The gold coins issued by Gupta kings indicate__________.
a. the availability of gold mines in the kingdom
b. the ability of the people to work with gold
c. the prosperity of the kingdom
d. the extravagant nature of kings
Answer: (c) the prosperity of the kingdom
2. The famous ancient paintings at Ajanta were painted on __________.
a. walls of caves
b. ceilings of temples
Answer: (a) walls of caves
3. Gupta period is remembered for __________.
a. renaissance in literature and art
b. expeditions to southern India
c. invasion of Huns
d. religious tolerance
Answer: (a) renaissance in literature and art
4. What did Indian scientists achieve in astronomy and mathematics during the Gupta period?
Invention of zero and the consequent evolution of the decimal system were the legacy of Guptas to the modem world. Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta were foremost astronomers and mathematicians of the time. Aryabhatta, in his book Surya Siddhanta, explained the true causes of solar and lunar eclipses. He was the first Indian astronomer to declare that the earth revolves around its own axis.
IX. Student activity
Stage any one of the dramas of Kalidasa in the classroom.
Compare and contrast the society of Guptas with that of Mauryas.
X. Life Skills
1. Collect information about the contribution of Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta to astronomy.
2. Visit a nearby ISRO centre to know more about satellite launching.
XI. Answer Grid
Who was Toromana? Ans: The chief of Huns
Name the high ranking offcials of Gupta Empire. Ans: Dandanayakas and Mahadandanayakas.
Name the Gupta kings who performed Asvamedha yagna. Ans: Kumaragupta I Samudra Gupta
Name the book which explained the causes for the lunar and solar eclipses. Ans: Surya Siddhanta
Name the first Gupta king to find a place on coins. Ans: Chandra Gupta I
Which was the main source of information to know about the Samudragupta’s reign? Ans: The Prayog Prashasti inscribed on Allahabad pillar.
Harsha was the worshipper of_______in the beginning. Ans: Lord Siva
University reached its fame during Harsha period. Ans: Nalanda