I. Choose the correct answer
1. The last Mauryan emperor was killed by_________.
Answer: a. Pushyamitra
2. _________ was the founder of Satavahana dynasty.
Answer: a. Simuka
3. _________ was the greatest of all the Kushana emperors.
b. Kadphises I
c. Kadphises II
Answer: a. Kanishka
4. The Kantara School of Sanskrit flourished in the _________ during 2nd centuryBC.
b. north-west India
d. Gangetic valley
Answer: a. Deccan
5. Sakas ruled over Gandhara region _____________ as their capital.
Answer: a. Sirkap
II. Match the statement with the reason and tick the appropriate answer
1. Assertion (A) : Colonies of Indo-Greeks and Indo-Parthians were established along the north-western part of India.
Reason (R): The Bactrian and Parthian settlers gradually intermarried and intermixed with the indigenous population.
a. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
b. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
c. A is correct but R is not correct.
d. A is not correct but R is correct.
Answer: (a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Statement I: Indo-Greek rulers introduced die system and produced coins with inscription and symbols, engraving figures on them.
Statement II: Indo-Greek rule was ended by the Kushanas.
a. Statement I is wrong, but statement II is correct.
b. Statement II is wrong, but statement I is correct
c. Both the statements are correct.
d. Both the statements are wrong.
Answer: (b) Statement II is wrong, but statement I is correct
3. Circle the odd one
Pushyamitra,Vasudeva, Simuka, Kanishka
Pushyamitra,Vasudeva, Simuka, Kanishka
III. Answer the following in a word
1. Who was the last Sunga ruler?
2. Who was the most important and famous king of Sakas?
3. Who established Kanva dynasty in Magadha?
4. Who converted Gondophernes into Christianity?
III. Fill in the blanks
1. Gondophernes was the founder of Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
2. In the South, Satavahanas became independent after Asoka's death.
3. Hala is famous as the author of Sattasai (Saptasati ).
4. Susarman was the last ruler of Kanva dynasty.
5. Kushana's later capital was Peshavar.
IV. State whether True or False
1. Magadha continued to be a great centre of Buddhist culture even after the fall of the Mauryan Empire. (True)
2. We get much information about Kharavela from Hathigumba inscription. (True)
3. Simuka waged a successful war against Magadha. (False)
4. Buddhacharita was written by Asvaghosha. (True)
V. Match the following
i) Patanjali - 1. Kalinga
ii) Agnimitra - 2. Indo-Greek
iii) King Kharavela - 3. Indo-Parthians
iv) Demetrius - 4. Second grammarian
v) Gondophernes - 5. Malavikagnimitra
a. 4 3 2 1 5
b. 3 4 5 1 2
c. 1 5 3 4 2
d. 2 5 3 1 4
Answer: b) 3 4 5 1 2
VI. Find out the wrong statement from the following
1. The Kushanas formed a section of the yueh-chi tribes who inhabited north-western China.
2. Kanishka made Jainism the state religion and built many monasteries.
3. The Great Stupa of Sanchi and the railings which enclose it belong to the Sunga period.
4. Pan-Chiang was the Chinese general defeated by Kanishka.
Answer: 2. Kanishka made Jainism the state religion and built many monasteries.
VII. Answer in one or two sentences
1. What happened to the last Mauryan emperor?
The last Mauryan emperor, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his own general, Pushyamitra Sunga.
2. Write a note on Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitra.
Agnimitra is said to be the hero of Kalidasa's Malavikagnimitra. The drama also refers to the victory of Vasumitra, Agnimitra’s son, over the Greeks on the banks of the Sindhu river.
3. Name the ruler of Kanva dynasty.
Vasudeva, Bhumi Mitra, Narayana, Susarman.
4. Highlight the literary achievements of Satavahanas.
The Satavahana king Hala was himself a great scholar of Sanskrit. The Kantara school of Sanskrit flourished in the Deccan in second century B.C. Hala is famous as the author of Sattasai (Saptasati), 700 stanzas in Prakrit.
5. Name the places where Satavahana’s monuments are situated.
Satavahana's monuments are situated in Gandhara, Madhura, Amaravati, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi and Bharhut.
6. Give an account of the achievements of Kadphises I.
Kadphises I - He was the first famous military and political leader of the Kushanas. He overthrew the Indo-Greek and Indo-Parthian rulers and established himself as a sovereign ruler of Bactria. He extended his power in Kabul, Gandhara and upto the Indus.
7. Name the Buddhist saints and scholars who adorned the court of Kanishka.
Asvaghosha, Vasumitra and Nagarjuna.
VIII. Answer the following
1. Who invaded India after the decline of the Mauryan empire?
The break-up of Mauryan Empire resulted in the invasions of Sakas, Scythians, Parthians, Indo-Greeks or Bactrian Greeks and Kushanas from the north-west.
2. Give an account of the conquests of Pushyamitra Sunga.
Pushyamitra Sunga successfully repulsed the invasion of Bactria king, Menander. Pushyamitra thwarted an attack from the Kalinga king Kharavela. He also conquered Vidarba.
3. Write a note on GautamiputraSatakarni.
Gautamiputra Satakarni was the greatest ruler of the family. In the Nasik prashasti, published by his mother Gautami Balasri, Gautamiputra Satakarni is described as the destroyer of Sakas, Yavanas (Greeks) and Pahlavas (Parthians). The extent of the empire is also mentioned in the record. Their domain included Maharashtra, north Konkan, Berar, Gujarat, Kathiawar and Malwa. His ship coins are suggestive of Andhras' skill in seafaring and their naval power.
4. What do you know of Gondopharid dynasty?
Indo-Parthian kingdom or Gondopharid dynasty was founded by Gondophernes. The domain of Indo-Parthians comprised Kabul and Gandhara. The name of Gondophernes is associated with the Christian apostle St.Thomas. According to Christian tradition, St.Thomas visited the court of Gondophernes and converted him to Christianity.
5. Who was considered the best known Indo-Greek King.Why?
Menander - He was one of the best known Indo-Greek kings. He is said to have ruled a large kingdom in the north-west of the country. His coins were found over an extensive area ranging from Kabul valley and Indus river to western Uttar Pradesh.
6. Who were Sakas?
Sakas were Scythians, nomadic ancient Iranians, and known as Sakas in Sanskrit. The Indo-Greek rule in India was ended by the Sakas. Sakas as nomads came in huge number and spread all over northern and western India. The Sakas were against the tribe of Turki nomads.
7. Give an account of the religious policy of Kanishka.
Kanishka was an ardent Buddhist. Kanishka's empire was a Buddhist empire. Kanishka adopted Buddhism under the influence of Asvaghosha, a celebrated monk from Pataliputra. Though a great warrior and an empire-builder, Kanishka was as equal as the exponent and champion of Mahayanism.
Kanishka made Buddhism as the state religion and built many stupas and monasteries in Mathura, Taxila and many other parts of his kingdom. He sent Buddhist missionaries to Tibet, China and many countries of Central Asia for the propagation of Buddha's gospel.
He organised the fourth Buddhist Council at Kundalavana near Srinagar to sort out the differences between the various schools of Buddhism. It was only in this council that Buddhism was split into Hinayanism and Mahayanism.
1. The importance of Gandhara School of Art.
The Gandhara School of Indian Art is heavily indebted to Greek influence. The Greeks were good cave builders. The Mahayana Buddhists learnt the art of carving out caves from them and became skilled in rock-cut architecture.
The Gandhara School of Art flourished during Kanishka's time. The most favourite subject of the Gandhara artists was the carving of sculptures of Buddha.
2. Provide an account of trade and commerce during the post-Mauryan period in South India.
There was great development in trade and commerce during the period of Satavahanas.
In order to improve business, the traders formed commercial groups.
Artisans like potters, weavers and oil producers made use of the commercial groups.
Silver coins were used for business transactions. Trade abroad flourished during the period of Satavahanas.
Ptolemy has made note of a number of harbours in Deccan.
The harbour Kalyanni in West Deccan was a big harbour of the Satavahanas. The harbours in the East Coast were noted for their excellence.
1. Prepare an album with centres of archaeological monuments of Satavahanas and Kushanas.
2. Arrange a debate in the classroom on the cultural contribution of Indo-Greeks Sakas and Kushanas.
XI. Answer Grid
Who wrote Brihastkatha?
How many years did the Satavahanas rule the Deccan?
Ans. 450 years
What was the favourite subject of the Gandhara artists?
Ans. Carving of Sculptures of Buddha
Name the Satavahana ruler who performed two Asvamedha sacrifices.
Who laid the foundation of Saka era?
Where did Kanishka organise the fourth Buddhist Council?
Ans. Kundalavana near Srinagar