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Describe the pathogenesis and treatment of myofascial syndrome (trigger points).
Trigger points can be found in more than 50% of the population. Acute muscle strain or chronic repetitive motions lead to tissue damage and the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This causes a localized sustained contracture of the muscle fibers. Myofascial syn-drome manifests as discrete, well-localized, point pain and tenderness. A taut muscular band is often palpated causing a painful reaction (jump sign).
Treatment modalities consist of the spray and stretch technique (with ethyl chloride), trigger point injections with local anesthetic under pressure, massage therapy, transcuta-neous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and acupuncture.
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