What are the indications for open cardiac massage?
Open cardiac massage is probably indicated only
in postoperative cardiac surgical patients (in case of pericar-dial tamponade),
in the operating room if the heart is accessible, in patients with severely
deformed thoracic cages, and in some cases of penetrating chest trauma. It
should be considered in cases of cardiac arrest caused by hypothermia,
pulmonary embolism, pericardial tamponade, abdominal hemorrhage, and blunt
trauma with cardiac arrest. It has not been found to be of value in patients
who have had prolonged closed CPR.