According to the Constitution of India, the Governor is the nominal head and the Chief Minister is the real head in the state executive. Since the parliamentary form of government exists, we find two types of heads. Thus, the position of the Chief Minister at the state level is anologus to the position of Prime Minister at the Centre. Every state shall have a Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of this powers and functions, except the discretionary ones under Article 163. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. Actually, after the general elections to the state Legislative Assembly are over, the Governor calls the leader of the majority party to form ministry in the state. The Chief Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor. However, the normal term of office of the Chief Minister is five years. But, he may lose the office due to his resignation and the imposition of state emergency under Article 356.
The Chief Minister is the chief of state administration. He has enormous functions and powers. The following are the functions and powers of the Chief Minister.
A. Relating to the council of ministers
B. Relating to the Governor
C. Relating to the State Legislature
D. Other functions and powers.
As the head of the Council of Ministers, the Chief Minister enjoys the following functions and powers.
1. The Chief Minister recommends the persons who can be appointed as ministers by Governor.
2. He allocates the portfolios among the ministers.
3. He shuffles and reshuffles his ministry.
4. He can ask a minister to resign or to advise the Governor to dismiss him in case of difference of opinion.
5. He presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers and influences its decisions.
6. He can bring about the collapse of the council of ministers by resigning from office; and
7. He guides, directs, controls and coordinates the activities of all the ministers.
1. The Chief Minister is the principal channel of communication between the Governor and the Council of Ministers under Article 167, and
2. He advises the Governor in relation to the appointment of the following officials.
(a) Advocate General
(b) State Election Commissioner
(c) Chairman and Members of the State Public Service Commission.
(d) Chairman and Members of the State Planning Commission
(e) Chairman and Members of the State Finance Commission.
1. The Chief Minister advises the Governor with regard to the summoning and proroguing the sessions of the state legislature.
2. He announces the government policies on the floor of the house.
3. He can introduce the bills in the Legislative Assembly; and
4. He can recommend for the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly to the Governor anytime.
1. As the leader of the ruling party, the Chief Minister has to control the party and develop the disciplines.
2. As the leader of the state, he has to keenly consider the demands of the different sections of the people.
3. As the political head of the various services, he has to supervise, control and co-ordinate the secretaries of various departments in the state level.
4. For smooth functioning of the state and for good centre-state relations, he has to develop a rapport with the union government; and
5. The size of the ministry is decided by the Chief Minister. However, only 15 percent of the members of the Legislative Assembly can be made as ministers due to the recent constitutional amendment.
Thus, the Chief Minister plays a very significant and highly crucial role in the state administration. However, the discretionary powers of the Governor have slightly reduced the role and importance of the Chief Minister only in a few states where the Governors have special provision. But, it is not so in the states like Tamil Nadu.
A list of Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu from 1952 onwards is given below:
In Tamil Nadu, every Chief Minister has had their own place among the people. They have introduced the social welfare programmes and the development programmes according to their thoughts and principles to achieve the socialistic pattern of society in the state. Especially, for the welfare and development of the downtrodden, scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes, they have taken various efforts through various programmes. Of all departments, transport stands first not only in the state but also in the national level. This has been achieved mainly by the serious efforts of the Chief Ministers of different periods in Tamil Nadu.
1. Thiru . C. Rajagopalachariar Congress 1952
2. Thiru. K. Kamaraj Congress 1954
3. Thiru. K. Kamaraj Congress 1957
4. Thiru. M. Bhakthavathchalam Congress 1963
5. Thiru. C.N. Annadurai DMK 1967
6. Thiru. N. Karunanidhi DMK 1969
7. Thiru. M. Karunanidhi DMK 1971
8. Thiru. M. Karunanidhi DMK 1976
9. Thiru. M.G. Ramachandran ADMK 1977
10. Thiru. M.G. Ramachandran ADMK 1980
11. Thiru. M.G. Ramachandran ADMK 1985
12. Tmty. Janaki ADMK (Jannuary) 1988
13. Thiru. M. Karunanidhi DMK 1989
14. Selvi. J. Jayalalithaa ADMK 1991
15. Thiru. M. Karunanidhi DMK 1996
16. Selvi. J. Jayalalithaa ADMK 2001
17. Thiru . O. Panneerselvam ADMK 2001
18. Selvi. J. Jayalalithaa ADMK 2002
19. Thiru. M. Karunanidhi DMK (May)2006
20. Selvi. J. Jayalalithaa ADMK 2011
21. Selvi. J. Jayalalithaa ADMK 2016
22. Thiru . O. Panneerselvam ADMK 2017
23. Thiru . A. PalaniSamy ADMK 2017