How is scoliosis classified?
Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis. There may be a genetic component involved but, as the name implies, the cause is unknown. Idiopathic scoliosis can be divided into three different types: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent.
Infantile idiopathic scoliosis is diagnosed between birth and 3 years of age and has a higher incidence among boys. The majority of these curves will resolve sponta-neously without treatment. The curves of infantile idio-pathic scoliosis are thought to be secondary to molding in utero.
Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis is diagnosed between the ages of 4 and 10 years and is more evenly distributed between males and females.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis occurs between the age of 10 years and skeletal maturity, and is more commonly seen in females.
There are many causes and associated conditions in which scoliosis may occur. A classification of scoliosis is shown in Table 52.1.